Rules of the Game
Carrying Things (Part One)
By Skip Williams

Sooner or later, every character has to worry about carrying a hefty amount of weight. Piles of treasure represent a pleasant burden, but characters might also have to haul unconscious, dead, or petrified comrades out of dungeons, tote piles of loose debris to clear out a collapsed tunnel, or lug jugs of water and bags of supplies through a wasteland to avoid dying of hunger and thirst. This series examines several aspects of the mundane, but all too necessary, job of carrying things around.

Carrying Capacity

Creatures that lack Strength scores can't carry much of anything because they have no way to exert force on other creatures or objects. Other creatures have a carrying capacity based on their sizes and Strength scores. The bigger and stronger a creature is, the more it can carry.

Why a Size Adjustment?

According to the Player's Handbook, a Strength score measures a creature's muscle and physical power. So, why should two different creatures with the same Strength score have different carrying capacities? The answer is fairly complex, but it boils down to this: Some body arrangements are better suited to use their Strength than others in some situations, and less able to use their Strength than others in other situations. Here's an example: A typical draft horse (a heavy horse) found on a farm and a fairly low-level human fighter have similar Strength scores (around 16). The horse, however, can carry three times what the human can because of its sheer size (Large), and because it's a quadruped. Size helps the horse carry more simply because its greater mass allows it to handle more weight (just as a bridge can support more weight than a footstool). Likewise, the horse's four motive limbs keep it more stable than the two-legged human when carrying a load, and give it more ability to exert a pulling force when carrying a load on its back or when dragging something.

So, why not just give the horse a higher Strength score? Well, because a creature's Strength score also helps with melee combat. A draft horse is a fine animal for doing heavy work, but it's not really designed for fighting. It can carry or drag a great deal, and its hooves can prove deadly, but not so much more dangerous than the fighter's sword. If we used the same scale to calculate the carrying capacity for both horse and human, the horse's Strength score would have to be somewhere around 24. The horse's Strength modifier for melee attacks and damage would be +7 instead of +3, and it would be quite a melee machine. By limiting the horse's Strength score and keeping it in line with what the human fighter has, while also increasing its carrying capacity, the rules more accurately represent what each creature can do in the game world.

The forgoing is only one example of how the rules handle size. Many kinds of special combat, such as grappling and tripping, also include a size modifier to reflect the inherent advantages (or disadvantages) of being bigger than your foe.

Load and Encumbrance

A creature slows down as its load increases. Pages 161-162 in the Player's Handbook and Rules of the Game: All About Movement discuss loads and encumbrance in detail, but here are the highlights.

From the pages 161-162 of the Player's Handbook:

CARRYING CAPACITY

Encumbrance rules determine how much a character's armor and equipment slow him or her down. Encumbrance comes in two parts: encumbrance by armor and encumbrance by total weight.

Encumbrance by Armor: A character's armor (as described on Table 7-6: Armor and Shields, page 123) defines his or her maximum Dexterity bonus to AC, armor check penalty, speed, and running speed. Unless your character is weak or carrying a lot of gear, that's all you need to know. The extra gear your character carries, such as weapons and rope, won't slow him or her down any more than the armor already does.

If your character is weak or carrying a lot of gear, however, then you'll need to calculate encumbrance by weight. Doing so is most important when your character is trying to carry some heavy object, such as a treasure chest.

Weight: If you want to determine whether your character's gear is heavy enough to slow him or her down more than the armor already does, total the weight of all the character's items, including armor, weapons, and gear. Compare this total to the character's Strength on Table 9-1: Carrying Capacity. Depending on how the weight compares to the character's carrying capacity, he or she may be carrying a light, medium, or heavy load. Like armor, a character's load affects his or her maximum Dexterity bonus to AC, carries a check penalty (which works like an armor check penalty), reduces the character's speed, and affects how fast the character can run, as shown on Table 9-2: Carrying Loads. A medium or heavy load counts as medium or heavy armor for the purpose of abilities or skills that are restricted by armor. Carrying a light load does not encumber a character.

If your character is wearing armor, use the worse figure (from armor or from load) for each category. Do not stack the penalties.


Lifting and Dragging: A character can lift as much as his or her maximum load over his or her head.

A character can lift as much as double his or her maximum load off the ground, but he or she can only stagger around with it. While overloaded in this way, the character loses any Dexterity bonus to AC and can move only 5 feet per round (as a full-round action).

A character can generally push or drag along the ground as much as five times his or her maximum load. Favorable conditions (such as being on smooth ground or dragging a slick object) can double these numbers, and bad circumstances (such as being on broken ground or pushing an object that snags) can reduce them to one-half or less.

Bigger and Smaller Creatures: The figures on Table 9-1: Carrying Capacity are for Medium bipedal creatures. A larger bipedal creature can carry more weight depending on its size category, as follows: Large x2, Huge x4, Gargantuan x8, Colossal x16. A smaller creature can carry less weight depending on its size category, as follows: Small x3/4, Tiny x1/2, Diminutive x1/4, Fine x1/8. Thus, a human with a Strength score magically boosted to equal that of a giant would still have a harder time lifting, say, a horse or a boulder than a giant would.


Tremendous Strength: For Strength scores not shown on Table 9-1, find the Strength score between 20 and 29 that has the same number in the "ones" digit as the creature's Strength score does. Multiply the figures by 4 if the creature's Strength is in the 30s, 16 if it's in the 40s, 64 if it's in the 50s, and so on. For example, a cloud giant with a 35 Strength can carry four times what a creature with a 25 Strength can carry, or 3,200 pounds x 4 because the cloud giant is Huge, for a total of 12,800 pounds.

  • Table 9-1 in the Player's Handbook shows carrying capacity and loads for Medium humanoid creatures. The first column shows light loads for various Strength scores. A creature carrying a light load isn't slowed down by the load it carries.

  • The second column in the table shows medium loads. A creature carrying a medium load suffers a speed reduction as shown on Table 9-2 in the Player's Handbook. For creatures with speeds not shown on Table 9-2, see page 20 in the Dungeon Master's Guide.

A creature carrying a medium load also has a limit on the Dexterity bonus it can apply to its Armor Class and a penalty on Dexterity checks, also as shown on Table 9-2.

A creature that has a fly speed from wings or similar appendages cannot fly when carrying a medium load.

  • The third column in the table shows heavy loads. The highest number in this column also is the maximum weight the creature can lift over its head (assuming that the creature has limbs that allow it to perform such an act).

A creature carrying a heavy load also has a limit on the Dexterity bonus it can apply to its Armor Class and a penalty on Dexterity checks, also as shown on Table 9-2. In addition, a heavy load limits a creature's running speed, also as shown on Table 9-2.

A heavy load prevents some kinds of flight just as a medium load does.

  • A creature wearing armor uses the maximum Dexterity bonus, Dexterity check penalty, speed reduction, and reduction in running speed as shown on the armor on Table 7-6 in the Player's Handbook or the values shown for its load on Table 9-2, whichever is worse. For example, a human with a Strength score of 18, wearing full plate armor, and carrying a total of 100 pounds of gear and loot (including the armor) is carrying only a light load. The full plate armor, however, impedes the character, reducing the human's speed to 20 feet, imposing a maximum Dexterity bonus to Armor Class of +1 and imposing a Dexterity check penalty of -6. The character also moves at only three times speed when running.

A speed reduction from armor also prevents flying. A creature that has a fly speed from wings or similar appendages cannot fly when wearing medium or heavy armor.

From the page 131 of the Player's Handbook:

Flying mounts can't fly in medium or heavy barding.

Expanded Carrying Capacity Tables

Table 9-1 in the Player's Handbook shows carrying capacities for Medium bipeds. Larger or smaller bipeds have greater or smaller carrying capacities, as follows: Fine x1/8, Diminutive x1/4, Tiny x1/2, Small x3/4, Large x2, Huge x4, Gargantuan x8, Colossal x16. Calculating these values on the fly can be a chore, so I've calculated them for you. If you look at the numbers on the following tables, closely, you'll notice that not all of them conform strictly to the formulas. That's because Table 9-1 gives a continuous range of numbers for a Medium humanoid's carrying capacity. When you start multiplying the numbers on the table, you get gaps in the numbers, however. I've closed the gaps by adjusting the number at the lower end of each load range. The tables for bipeds that are size Small or smaller, I've given loads in pounds and ounces. This allowed me to give load numbers that are as close to the formula as possible.

What Is a Biped?

A bipedal creature stands upright on two legs. In most cases, creatures of the following types usually should be treated as bipeds: fey, giants, humanoids, monstrous humanoids, outsiders, and undead. Be alert for exceptions. For example, a centaur is a monstrous humanoid, but its horse body makes it a quadruped. I've included outsiders and undead here because most of them have basically humanoid shapes, but not always. A yeth hound, for example, is an outsider and a quadruped. Most elementals and plants don't really have motive limbs, but are essentially upright and should use biped carrying capacities.

In addition, many constructs, such as golems, are bipedal. Many aberrations are bipedal (such as mind flayers) or probably ought to use biped carrying capacity, such as beholders. Animals that use only two motive limbs at a time, such as most birds, should use biped carrying capacities. Some animals, such as monkeys and apes, can switch between locomotion types.

Fine Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 6 oz. or less 7 oz.-12 oz. 13 oz.-1 lb. 4 oz.
2 12 oz. or less 13 oz.-1 lb. 10 oz. 1 lb. 11 oz.-2 lb.8 oz.
3 1 lb. 4 oz. or less 1 lb. 5 oz.-2 lb. 8 oz. 2 lb. 9 oz.-3 lb. 12 oz.
4 1 lb. 10 oz. or less 1 lb. 11 oz.-3 lb. 4 oz. 3 lb. 5 oz.-5 lb.
5 2 lb. or less 2 lb. 1 oz.-4 lb. 2 oz. 4 lb. 3 oz.-6 lb. 4 oz.
6 2 lb. 8 oz. or less 2 lb. 9 oz.-5 lb. 5 lb. 1 oz.-7 lb. 8 oz.
7 2 lb. 14 oz. or less 2 lb. 15 oz.-5 lb. 12 oz. 5 lb. 13 oz.-8 lb. 12 oz.
8 3 lb. 4 oz. or less 3 lb. 5 oz.-6 lb. 10 oz. 6 lb. 11 oz.-10 lb.
9 3 lb. 12 oz. or less 3 lb. 13 oz.-7 lb. 8 oz. 7 lb. 9 oz.-11 lb. 4 oz.
10 4 lb. 2 oz. or less 4 lb. 3 oz.-8 lb. 4 oz. 8 lb. 5 oz.-12 lb. 8 oz.
11 4 lb. 12 oz. or less 4 lb. 13 oz.-9 lb. 8 oz. 9 lb. 9 oz.-14 lb. 6 oz.
12 5 lb. 6 oz. or less 5 lb. 7 oz.-10 lb. 12 oz. 10 lb. 13 oz.-16 lb. 4 oz.
13 6 lb. 4 oz. or less 6 lb. 5 oz.-12 lb. 8 oz. 12 lb. 9 oz.-18 lb. 12 oz.
14 7 lb. 4 oz. or less 7 lb. 5 oz.-14 lb. 8 oz. 14 lb. 9 oz.-21 lb. 14 oz.
15 8 lb. 4 oz. or less 8 lb. 5 oz.-16 lb. 10 oz. 16 lb. 11 oz.-25 lb.
16 9 lb. 8 oz. or less 9 lb. 9 oz.-19 lb. 2 oz. 19 lb. 3 oz.-28 lb. 12 oz.
17 10 lb. 12 oz. or less 10 lb. 13 oz.-21 lb. 10 oz. 21 lb. 11 oz.-32 lb. 8 oz.
18 12 lb. 8 oz. or less 12 lb. 9 oz.-25 lb. 25 lb. 1 oz.-37 lb. 8 oz.
19 14 lb. 8 oz. or less 14 lb. 9 oz.-29 lb. 2 oz. 29 lb. 3 oz.-43 lb. 12 oz.
20 16 lb. 10 oz. or less 16 lb. 11 oz.-33 lb. 4 oz. 33 lb. 5 oz.-50 lb.
21 19 lb. 2 oz. or less 19 lb. 3 oz.-38 lb. 4 oz. 38 lb. 5 oz.-57 lb. 8 oz.
22 21 lb. 10 oz. or less 21 lb. 11 oz.-43 lb. 4 oz. 43 lb. 5 oz.-65 lb.
23 25 lb. or less 25 lb. 1 oz.-50 lb. 50 lb. 1 oz.-75 lb.
24 29 lb. 2 oz. or less 29 lb. 3 oz.-58 lb. 4 oz. 58 lb. 5 oz.-87 lb. 8 oz.
25 33 lb. 4 oz. or less 33 lb. 5 oz.-66 lb. 10 oz. 66 lb. 11 oz.-100 lb.
26 38 lb. 4 oz. or less 38 lb. 5 oz.-76 lb. 10 oz. 76 lb. 11 oz.-115 lb.
27 43 lb. 4 oz. or less 43 lb. 5 oz.-86 lb. 10 oz. 86 lb. 11 oz.-130 lb.
28 50 lb. or less 50 lb. 1 oz.-100 lb. 100 lb. 1 oz.-150 lb.
29 58 lb. 4 oz. or less 58 lb. 5 oz.-116 lb. 10 oz. 116 lb. 11 oz.-175 lb.
30 66 lb. 8 oz. or less 66 lb. 9 oz.-133 lb. 133 lb. 1 oz.-200 lb.
Diminutive Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 12 oz. or less 13 oz.-1 lb. 8 oz. 1 lb. 9 oz.-2 lb. 8 oz.
2 1 lb. 8 oz. or less 1 lb. 9 oz.-3 lb. 4 oz. 3 lb. 5 oz.-5 lb.
3 2 lb. 8 oz. or less 2 lb. 9 oz.-5 lb. 5 lb. 1 oz.-7 lb. 8 oz.
4 3 lb. 4 oz. or less 3 lb. 5 oz.-6 lb. 8 oz. 6 lb. 9 oz.-10 lb.
5 4 lb. or less 4 lb. 1 oz.-8 lb. 4 oz. 8 lb. 5 oz.-12 lb. 8 oz.
6 5 lb. or less 5 lb. 1 oz.-10 lb. 10 lb. 1 oz.-15 lb.
7 5 lb. 12 oz. or less 5 lb. 13 oz.-11 lb. 8 oz. 11 lb. 9 oz.-17 lb. 8 oz.
8 6 lb. 8 oz. or less 6 lb. 9 oz.-13 lb. 4 oz. 13 lb. 5 oz.-20 lb.
9 7 lb. 8 oz. or less 7 lb. 9 oz.-15 lb. 15 lb. 1 oz.-22 lb. 8 oz.
10 8 lb. 4 oz. or less 8 lb. 5 oz.-16 lb. 8 oz. 16 lb. 9 oz.-25 lb.
11 9 lb. 8 oz. or less 9 lb. 9 oz.-19 lb. 19 lb. 1 oz.-28 lb.12 oz.
12 10 lb. 12 oz. or less 10 lb. 13 oz.-21 lbs. 8 oz. 21 lb. 9 oz.-32 lb. 8 oz.
13 12 lb. 8 oz. or less 12 lb. 9 oz.-25 lb. 25 lb. 1 oz.-37 lb. 8 oz.
14 14 lb. 8 oz. or less 14 lb. 9 oz.-29 lb. 29 lb. 1 oz.-43 lb. 12 oz.
15 16 lb. 8 oz. or less 16 lb. 9 oz.-33 lb. 4 oz. 33 lb. 5 oz.-50 lb.
16 19 lb. or less 19 lb. 1 oz.-38 lb. 4 oz. 38 lb. 5 oz.-57 lb. 8 oz.
17 21 lb. 8 oz. or less 21 lb. 9 oz.-43 lb. 4 oz. 43 lb. 5 oz.-65 lb.
18 25 lb. or less 25 lb. 1 oz.-50 lb. 50 lb. 1 oz.-75 lb.
19 29 lb. or less 29 lb. 1 oz.-58 lb. 4 oz. 58 lb. 5 oz.-87 lb. 8 oz.
20 33 lb. 4 oz. or less 33 lb. 5 oz.-66 lb. 8 oz. 66 lb. 9 oz.-100 lb.
21 38 lb. 4 oz. or less 38 lb. 5 oz.-76 lb. 8 oz. 76 lb. 9 oz.-115 lb.
22 43 lb. 4 oz. or less 43 lb. 5 oz.-86 lb. 8 oz. 86 lbs .9 oz.-130 lb.
23 50 lb. or less 50 lb. 1 oz.-100 lb. 100 lb. 1 oz.-150 lb.
24 58 lb. 4 oz. or less 58 lb. 5 oz.-116 lb.8 oz. 116 lb. 9 oz.-175 lb.
25 66 lb. 8 oz. or less 66 lb. 9 oz.-133 lb. 4 oz. 133 lb. 5 oz.-200 lb.
26 76 lb. 8 oz. or less 76 lb. 9 oz.-153 lb. 4 oz. 153 lb. 5 oz.-230 lb.
27 86 lb. 8 oz. or less 86 lb. 9 oz.-173 lb. 4 oz. 173 lb. 5 oz.-260 lb.
28 100 lb. or less 100 lb. 1 oz.-200 lb. 200 lb. 1 oz.-300 lb.
29 116 lb. 8 oz. or less 116 lb. 9 oz.-233 lb. 4 oz. 233 lb. 5 oz.-350 lb.
30 133 lb. or less 133 lb. 1 oz.-266 lb. 266 lb. 1 oz.-400 lb.
Tiny Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 1 lb. 8 oz. or less 1 lb. 9 oz-3 lb. 3 lb. 1 oz.-5 lb.
2 3 lb. or less 3 lb. 1 oz.-6 lb. 8 oz. 6 lb. 9 oz.-10 lb.
3 5 lb. or less 5 lb. 1 oz.-10 lb. 10 lb. 1 oz.-15 lb.
4 6 lb. 8 oz. or less 6 lb. 9 oz.-13 lb. 13 lb. 1 oz.-20 lb.
5 8 lb. or less 8 lb. 1 oz.-16 lb. 8 oz. 16 lb. 9 oz.-25 lb.
6 10 lb. or less 10 lb. 1 oz.-20 lb. 20 lb. 1 oz.-30 lb.
7 11 lb. 8 oz. or less 11 lb. 9 oz.-23 lb. 23 lb. 1 oz.-35 lb.
8 13 lb. or less 13 lb. 1 oz.-26 lb. 8 oz. 26 lb. 9 oz. -40 lb.
9 15 lb. or less 15 lb. 1 oz.-30 lb. 30 lb. 1 oz.-45 lb.
10 16 lb. 8 oz. or less 16 lb. 9 oz. -33 lb. 33 lb. 1 oz.-50 lb.
11 19 lb. or less 19 lb. 1 oz.-38 lb. 38 lb. 1 oz.-57 lb. 8 oz.
12 21 lb. 8 oz. or less 21 lb. 9 oz. -43 lb. 43 lb. 1 oz.-65 lb.
13 25 lb. or less 25 lb. 1 oz.-50 lb. 50 lb. 1 oz.-75 lb.
14 29 lb. or less 29 lb. 1 oz.-58 lb. 58 lb. 1 oz.-87 lb. 8 oz.
15 33 lb. or less 33 lb. 1 oz.-66 lb. 8 oz. 66 lb. 9 oz. -100 lb.
16 38 lb. or less 38 lb. 1 oz.-76 lb. 8 oz. 76 lb. 9 oz. -115 lb.
17 43 lb. or less 43 lb. 1 oz.-86 lb. 8 oz. 86 lb. 9 oz. -130 lb.
18 50 lb. or less 50 lb. 1 oz.-100 lb. 100 lb. 1 oz.-150 lb.
19 58 lb. or less 58 lb. 1 oz.-116 lb. 8 oz. 116 lb. 9 oz. -175 lb.
20 66 lb. 8 oz. or less 66 lb. 9 oz.-133 lb. 133 lb. 1 oz.-200 lb.
21 76 lb. 8 oz. or less 76 lb. 9 oz.-153 lb. 153 lb. 1 oz.-230 lb.
22 86 lb. 8 oz. or less 86 lb. 9 oz.-173 lb. 173 lb. 1 oz.-260 lb.
23 100 lb. or less 100 lb. 1 oz.-200 lb. 200 lb. 1 oz.-300 lb.
24 116 lb. 8 oz. 116 lb. 9 oz.-233 lb. 233 lb. 1 oz.-350 lb.
25 133 lb. or less 133 lb. 1 oz.-266 lb. 8 oz. 266 lb. 9 oz.-400 lb.
26 153 lb. or less 153 lb. 1 oz.-306 lb. 8 oz. 306 lb. 9 oz.-460 lb.
27 173 lb. or less 173 lb. 1 oz.-346 lb. 8 oz. 346 lb. 9 oz.-520 lb.
28 200 lb. or less 200 lb. 1 oz.-400 lb. 400 lb. 1 oz.-600 lb.
29 233 lb. or less 233 lb. 1 oz.-466 lb. 8 oz. 466 lb. 9 oz. -700 lb.
30 266 lb. or less 266 lb. 1 oz.-532 lb. 532 lb. 1 oz.-800 lb.
Small Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 2 lb. 4 oz. or less 2 lb. 5 oz-4 lb. 8 oz. 4 lb. 9 oz.-7 lb. 8 oz.
2 4 lb. 8 oz. or less 4 lb. 9 oz.-9 lb. 12 oz. 9 lb. 13 oz.-15 lb.
3 7 lb. 8 oz. or less 7 lb. 9 oz.-15 lb. 15 lb. 1 oz.-22 lb. 8 oz.
4 9 lb. 12 oz. or less 9 lb. 13 oz.-19 lb. 8 oz. 19 lb. 9 oz.-30 lb.
5 12 lb. or less 12 lb. 1 oz.-24 lb. 12 oz. 24 lb. 13 oz.-37 lb. 8 oz.
6 15 lb. or less 15 lb. 1 oz.-30 lb. 30 lb. 1 oz.-45 lb.
7 17 lb. 4 oz. or less 17 lb. 5 oz.-34 lb. 8 oz. 34 lb. 9 oz.-52 lb. 8 oz.
8 19 lb. 8 oz. or less 19 lb. 9 oz.-39 lb. 12 oz. 39 lb. 13 oz.-60 lb.
9 22 lb. 8 oz. or less 22 lb. 9 oz.-45 lb. 45 lb. 1 oz.-67 lb. 8 oz.
10 24 lb. 12 oz. or less 24 lb. 13 oz.-49 lb. 8 oz. 49 lb. 9 oz.-75 lb.
11 28 lb. 8 oz. or less 28 lb. 9 oz.-57 lb. 57 lb. 1 oz.-86 lb. 4 oz.
12 32 lb. 4 oz. or less 32 lb. 5 oz.-64 lb. 8 oz. 64 lb. 9 oz.-97 lb. 8 oz.
13 37 lb. 8 oz. or less 37 lb. 9 oz.-75 lb. 75 lb. 1 oz.-112 lb. 8 oz.
14 43 lb. 8 oz. or less 43 lb. 9 oz.-87 lb. 87 lb. 1 oz.-131 lb. 4 oz.
15 49 lb. 8 oz. or less 49 lb. 9 oz.-99 lb. 12 oz. 99 lb. 13 oz.-150 lb.
16 57 lb. or less 57 lb. 1 oz.-114 lb. 12 oz. 114 lb. 13 oz.-172 lb. 8 oz.
17 64 lb. 8 oz. or less 64 lb. 9 oz.-129 lb. 12 oz. 129 lb. 13 oz.-195 lb.
18 75 lb. or less 75 lb. 1 oz.-150 lb. 150 lb. 1 oz.-225 lb.
19 87 lb. or less 87 lb. 1 oz.-174 lb. 12 oz. 174 lb. 13 oz.-262 lb. 8 oz.
20 99 lb. 12 oz. or less 99 lb. 13 oz.-199 lb. 8 oz. 199 lb. 9 oz.-300 lb.
21 114 lb. 12 oz. or less 114 lb. 13 oz.-229 lb. 8 oz. 229 lb. 9 oz.-345 lb.
22 129 lb. 12 oz. or less 129 lb. 13 oz.-259 lb. 8 oz. 259 lb. 9 oz.-390 lb.
23 150 lb. or less 150 lb. 1 oz.-300 lb. 300 lb. 1 oz.-450 lb.
24 174 lb. 12 oz. or less 174 lb. 13 oz.-349 lb. 8 oz. 349 lb. 9 oz.-525 lb.
25 199 lb. 8 oz. or less 199 lb. 9 oz.-399 lb. 12 oz. 399 lb. 13 oz.-600 lb.
26 229 lb. 8 oz. or less 229 lb. 9 oz.-459 lb. 12 oz. 459 lb. 13 oz.-690 lb.
27 259 lb. 8 oz. or less 259 lb. 9 oz.-519 lb. 12 oz. 519 lb. 13 oz.-780 lb.
28 300 lb. or less 300 lb. 1 oz.-600 lb. 600 lb. 1 oz.-900 lb.
29 349 lb. 8 oz. or less 349 lb. 9 oz.-699 lb. 12 oz. 699 lb. 13 oz.-1,050 lb.
30 399 lb. or less 399 lb. 1 oz.-798 lb. 798 lb. 1 oz.-1,200 lb.
Large Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 6 lb. or less 7 lb.-12 lb. 13 lb.-20 lb.
2 12 lb. or less 13 lb.-26 lb. 27 lb.-40 lb.
3 20 lb. or less 21 lb.-40 lb. 41 lb.-60 lb.
4 26 lb. or less 27 lb.-52 lb. 53 lb.-80 lb.
5 32 lb. or less 33 lb.-66 lb. 67 lb.-100 lb.
6 40 lb. or less 41 lb.-80 lb. 81 lb.-120 lb.
7 46 lb. or less 47 lb.-92 lb. 93 lb.-140 lb.
8 52 lb. or less 53 lb.-106 lb. 107 lb.-160 lb.
9 60 lb. or less 61 lb.-120 lb. 121 lb.-180 lb.
10 66 lb. or less 67 lb.-132 lb. 133 lb.-200 lb.
11 76 lb. or less 77 lb.-152 lb. 153 lb.-230 lb.
12 86 lb. or less 87 lb.-172 lb. 173 lb.-260 lb.
13 100 lb. or less 101 lb.-200 lb. 201 lb.-300 lb.
14 116 lb. or less 117 lb.-232 lb. 233 lb.-350 lb.
15 132 lb. or less 133 lb.-266 lb. 267 lb.-400 lb.
16 152 lb. or less 153 lb.-306 lb. 307 lb.-460 lb.
17 172 lb. or less 173 lb.-346 lb. 347 lb.-520 lb.
18 200 lb. or less 201 lb.-400 lb. 401 lb.-600 lb.
19 232 lb. or less 233 lb.-466 lb. 467 lb.-700 lb.
20 266 lb. or less 267 lb.-532 lb. 533 lb.-800 lb.
21 306 lb. or less 307 lb.-612 lb. 613 lb.-920 lb.
22 346 lb. or less 347 lb.-692 lb. 693 lb.-1,040 lb.
23 400 lb. or less 401 lb.-800 lb. 801 lb.-1,200 lb.
24 466 lb. or less 467 lb.-932 lb. 933 lb.-1,400 lb.
25 532 lb. or less 533 lb.-1,066 lb. 1,067 lb.-1,600 lb.
26 612 lb. or less 613 lb.-1,226 lb. 1,227 lb.-1,840 lb.
27 692 lb. or less 693 lb.-1,386 lb. 1,387 lb.-2,080 lb.
28 800 lb. or less 801 lb.-1,600 lb. 1,601 lb.-2,400 lb.
29 932 lb. or less 933 lb.-1,866 lb. 1,867 lb.-2,800 lb.
30 1,064 lb. or less 1,065 lb.-2,128 lb. 2,129 lb.-3,200 lb.
Huge Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 12 lb. or less 13 lb.-24 lb. 25 lb.-40 lb.
2 24 lb. or less 25 lb.-52 lb. 53 lb.-80 lb.
3 40 lb. or less 41 lb.-80 lb. 81 lb.-120 lb.
4 52 lb. or less 53 lb.-104 lb. 105 lb.-160 lb.
5 64 lb. or less 65 lb.-132 lb. 133 lb.-200 lb.
6 80 lb. or less 81 lb.-160 lb. 161 lb.-240 lb.
7 92 lb. or less 93 lb.-184 lb. 185 lb.-280 lb.
8 104 lb. or less 105 lb.-212 lb. 213 lb.-320 lb.
9 120 lb. or less 121 lb.-240 lb. 241 lb.-360 lb.
10 132 lb. or less 133 lb.-264 lb. 265 lb.-400 lb.
11 152 lb. or less 153 lb.-304 lb. 305 lb.-460 lb.
12 172 lb. or less 173 lb.-344 lb. 345 lb.-520 lb.
13 200 lb. or less 201 lb.-400 lb. 401 lb.-600 lb.
14 232 lb. or less 233 lb.-464 lb. 465 lb.-700 lb.
15 264 lb. or less 265 lb.-532 lb. 533 lb.-800 lb.
16 304 lb. or less 305 lb.-612 lb. 613 lb.-920 lb.
17 344 lb. or less 345 lb.-692 lb. 693 lb.-1,040 lb.
18 400 lb. or less 401 lb.-800 lb. 801 lb.-1,200 lb.
19 464 lb. or less 465 lb.-932 lb. 933 lb.-1,400 lb.
20 532 lb. or less 533 lb.-1,064 lb. 1,065 lb.-1,600 lb.
21 612 lb. or less 613 lb.-1,224 lb. 1,225 lb.-1,840 lb.
22 692 lb. or less 693 lb.-1,384 lb. 1,385 lb.-2,080 lb.
23 800 lb. or less 801 lb.-1,600 lb. 1,601 lb.-2,400 lb.
24 932 lb. or less 933 lb.-1,864 lb. 1,865 lb.-2,800 lb.
25 1,064 lb. or less 1,065 lb.-2,132 lb. 2,133 lb.-3,200 lb.
26 1,224 lb. or less 1,225 lb.-2,452 lb. 2,453 lb.-3,680 lb.
27 1,384 lb. or less 1,385 lb.-2,772 lb. 2,773 lb.-4,160 lb.
28 1,600 lb. or less 1,601 lb.-3,200 lb. 3,201 lb.-4,800 lb.
29 1,864 lb. or less 1,865 lb.-3,732 lb. 3,733 lb.-5,600 lb.
30 2,128 lb. or less 2,129 lb.-4,256 lb. 4,257 lb.-6,400 lb.
Gargantuan Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 24 lb. or less 25 lb.-48 lb. 49 lb.-80 lb.
2 48 lb. or less 49 lb.-104 lb. 105 lb.-160 lb.
3 80 lb. or less 81 lb.-160 lb. 161 lb.-240 lb.
4 104 lb. or less 105 lb.-208 lb. 209 lb.-320 lb.
5 128 lb. or less 129 lb.-264 lb. 265 lb.-400 lb.
6 160 lb. or less 161 lb.-320 lb. 321 lb.-480 lb.
7 184 lb. or less 185 lb.-368 lb. 369 lb.-560 lb.
8 208 lb. or less 209 lb.-424 lb. 425 lb.-640 lb.
9 240 lb. or less 241 lb.-480 lb. 481 lb.-720 lb.
10 264 lb. or less 265 lb.-528 lb. 529 lb.-800 lb.
11 304 lb. or less 305 lb.-608 lb. 609 lb.-920 lb.
12 344 lb. or less 345 lb.-688 lb. 689 lb.-1,040 lb.
13 400 lb. or less 401 lb.-800 lb. 801 lb.-1,200 lb.
14 464 lb. or less 465 lb.-928 lb. 929 lb.-1,400 lb.
15 528 lb. or less 529 lb.-1,064 lb. 1,065 lb.-1,600 lb.
16 608 lb. or less 609 lb.-1,224 lb. 1,225 lb.-1,840 lb.
17 688 lb. or less 689 lb.-1,384 lb. 1,385 lb.-2,080 lb.
18 800 lb. or less 801 lb.-1,600 lb. 1,601 lb.-2,400 lb.
19 928 lb. or less 929 lb.-1,864 lb. 1,865 lb.-2,800 lb.
20 1,064 lb. or less 1,065 lb.-2,128 lb. 2,129 lb.-3,200 lb.
21 1,224 lb. or less 1,225 lb.-2,448 lb. 2,449 lb.-3,680 lb.
22 1,384 lb. or less 1,385 lb.-2,768 lb. 2,769 lb.-4,160 lb.
23 1,600 lb. or less 1,601 lb.-3,200 lb. 3,201 lb.-4,800 lb.
24 1,864 lb. or less 1,865 lb.-3,728 lb. 3,729 lb.-5,600 lb.
25 2,128 lb. or less 2,129 lb.-4,264 lb. 4,265 lb.-6,400 lb.
26 2,448 lb. or less 2,449 lb.-4,904 lb. 4,905 lb.-7,360 lb.
27 2,768 lb. or less 2,769 lb.-5,544 lb. 5,545 lb.-8,320 lb.
28 3,200 lb. or less 3,201 lb.-6,400 lb. 6,401 lb.-9,600 lb.
29 3,728 lb. or less 3,729 lb.-7,464 lb. 7,465 lb.-11,200 lb.
30 4,256 lb. or less 4,257 lb.-8,512 lb. 8,513 lb.-12,800 lb.
Colossal Biped Carrying Capacity
Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 48 lb. or less 49 lb.-96 lb. 97 lb.-160 lb.
2 96 lb. or less 97 lb.-208 lb. 209 lb.-320 lb.
3 160 lb. or less 161 lb.-320 lb. 321 lb.-480 lb.
4 208 lb. or less 209 lb.-416 lb. 417 lb.-640 lb.
5 256 lb. or less 257 lb.-528 lb. 529 lb.-800 lb.
6 320 lb. or less 321 lb.-640 lb. 641 lb.-960 lb.
7 368 lb. or less 369 lb.-736 lb. 737 lb.-1,120 lb.
8 416 lb. or less 417 lb.-848 lb. 849 lb.-1,280 lb.
9 480 lb. or less 481 lb.-960 lb. 961 lb.-1,440 lb.
10 528 lb. or less 529 lb.-1,056 lb. 1,057 lb.-1,600 lb.
11 608 lb. or less 609 lb.-1,216 lb. 1,217 lb.-1,840 lb.
12 688 lb. or less 689 lb.-1,376 lb. 1,377 lb.-2,080 lb.
13 800 lb. or less 801 lb.-1,600 lb. 1,601 lb.-2,400 lb.
14 928 lb. or less 929 lb.-1,856 lb. 1,857 lb.-2,800 lb.
15 1,056 lb. or less 1,057 lb.-2,128 lb. 2,129 lb.-3,200 lb.
16 1,216 lb. or less 1,217 lb.-2,448 lb. 2,449 lb.-3,680 lb.
17 1,376 lb. or less 1,377 lb.-2,768 lb. 2,769 lb.-4,160 lb.
18 1,600 lb. or less 1,601 lb.-3,200 lb. 3,201 lb.-4,800 lb.
19 1,856 lb. or less 1,857 lb.-3,728 lb. 3,729 lb.-5,600 lb.
20 2,128 lb. or less 2,129 lb.-4,256 lb. 4,257 lb.-6,400 lb.
21 2,448 lb. or less 2,449 lb.-4,896 lb. 4,897 lb.-7,360 lb.
22 2,768 lb. or less 2,769 lb.-5,536 lb. 5,537 lb.-8,320 lb.
23 3,200 lb. or less 3,201 lb.-6,400 lb. 6,401 lb.-9,600 lb.
24 3,728 lb. or less 3,729 lb.-7,456 lb. 7,457 lb.-11,200 lb.
25 4,256 lb. or less 4,257 lb.-8,528 lb. 8,529 lb.-12,800 lb.
26 4,896 lb. or less 4,897 lb.-9,808 lb. 9,809 lb.-14,720 lb.
27 5,536 lb. or less 5,537 lb.-11,088 lb. 11,089 lb.-16,640 lb.
28 6,400 lb. or less 6,401 lb.-12,800 lb. 12,801 lb.-19,200 lb.
29 7,456 lb. or less 7,457 lb.-14,928 lb. 14,929 lb.-22,400 lb.
30 8,512 lb. or less 8,513 lb.-17,024 lb. 17,025 lb.-25,600 lb.

What's Next?

That's all we have time for this week. Next week, we'll consider quadrupeds and their carrying capacities.

About the Author

Skip Williams keeps busy with freelance projects for several different game companies and was the Sage of Dragon Magazine for many years. Skip is a co-designer of the D&D 3rd Edition game and the chief architect of the Monster Manual. When not devising swift and cruel deaths for player characters, Skip putters in his kitchen or garden (rabbits and deer are not Skip's friends) or works on repairing and improving the century-old farmhouse that he shares with his wife, Penny, and a growing menagerie of pets.


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