Excerpts 09/05/2004


Monster Manual III
More monsters -- what else is there to say?



Plenty! Fresh foes and advanced versions of classic critters lurk within Monster Manual III, waiting to add complexity to your campaign and a new edge to encounters. This fully illustrated collection of creatures offers many new enemies and a few potential allies, each heading its own page for ease of reference and from-the-book use. DMs will especially appreciate the tactics sections and world-specific advice on incorporating these monsters into particular campaign settings such as the Forgotten Realms and Eberron. Wherever your story unfolds, however, now you can populate it with a whole new menagerie of menaces.

Glossary

This section of Monster Manual III provides definitions and descriptions of monster characteristics. If you have come across a term used earlier in this book that you're not familiar with, this is the place to find out more.

Aberration Type: An aberration has a bizarre anatomy, strange abilities, an alien mind-set, or any combination of the three.

Features: An aberration has the following features.

* d8 Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good Will saves.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: An aberration possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Proficient with its natural weapons. If generally humanoid in form, proficient with all simple weapons and any weapon it is described as using.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Aberrations not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Aberrations are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Aberrations eat, sleep, and breathe.

Ability Score Loss (Su): Some attacks reduce the opponent's score in one or more abilities. This loss can be temporary (ability damage) or permanent (ability drain).

Ability Damage: This attack damages an opponent's ability score. The creature's descriptive text gives the ability and the amount of damage. If an attack that causes ability damage scores a critical hit, it deals twice the indicated amount of damage (if the damage is expressed as a die range, roll two dice). Ability damage returns at the rate of 1 point per day for each affected ability.

Ability Drain: This effect permanently reduces a living opponent's ability score when the creature hits with a melee attack. The creature's descriptive text gives the ability and the amount drained. If an attack that causes ability drain scores a critical hit, it drains twice the indicated amount (if the damage is expressed as a die range, roll two dice). Unless otherwise specified in the creature's description, a draining creature gains 5 temporary hit points (10 on a critical hit) whenever it drains an ability score no matter how many points it drains. Temporary hit points gained in this fashion last for a maximum of 1 hour.

Some ability drain attacks allow a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 draining creature's racial HD + draining creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). If no saving throw is mentioned, none is allowed.

Air Subtype: This subtype usually is used for elementals and outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane Air. Air creatures always have fly speeds and usually have perfect maneuverability (see the section on Movement, page 216).

Alignment: This line in a monster entry gives the alignment that the creature is most likely to have. Every entry includes a qualifier that indicates how broadly that alignment applies to all monsters of that kind.

Always: The creature is born with the indicated alignment. The creature may have a hereditary predisposition to the alignment or come from a plane that predetermines it. It is possible for individuals to change alignment, but such individuals are either unique or rare exceptions.

Usually: The majority (more than 50%) of these creatures have the given alignment. This may be due to strong cultural influences, or it may be a legacy of the creatures' origin. For example, most elves inherited their chaotic good alignment from their creator, the deity Corellon Larethian.

Often: The creature tends toward the given alignment, either by nature or nurture, but not strongly. A plurality (40-50%) of individuals have the given alignment, but exceptions are common.

Animal Type: An animal is a living, nonhuman creature, usually a vertebrate with no magical abilities and no innate capacity for language or culture.

Features: An animal has the following features (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* d8 Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good Fortitude and Reflex saves (certain animals have different good saves).

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: An animal possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Intelligence score of 1 or 2 (no creature with an Intelligence score of 3 or higher can be an animal).

* Low-light vision.

* Alignment: Always neutral.

* Treasure: None.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only. A noncombative herbivore uses its natural weapons as a secondary attack. Such attacks are made with a -5 penalty on the creature's attack rolls, and the animal receives only 1/2 its Strength modifier as a damage adjustment.

* Proficient with no armor unless trained for war.

* Animals eat, sleep, and breathe.

Aquatic Subtype: Creatures with the aquatic subtype always have swim speeds and thus can move in water without making Swim checks. An aquatic creature can breathe underwater. It cannot also breathe air unless it has the amphibious special quality.

Augmented Subtype: A creature receives this subtype whenever something happens to change its original type. Some creatures (those with an inherited template) are born with this subtype; others acquire it when they take on an acquired template. The augmented subtype is always paired with the creature's original type. For example, a wizard's raven familiar is a magical beast (augmented animal). A creature with the augmented subtype usually has the traits of its current type, but the features of its original type. For example, a wizard's raven familiar has an animal's features and the traits of a magical beast.

Blindsense (Ex): Using nonvisual senses, such as acute smell or hearing, a creature with blindsense notices things it cannot see. The creature usually does not need to make Spot or Listen checks to pinpoint the location of a creature within range of its blindsense ability, provided that it has line of effect to that creature. Any opponent the creature cannot see still has total concealment against the creature with blindsense, and the creature still has the normal miss chance when attacking foes that have concealment. Visibility still affects the movement of a creature with blindsense. A creature with blindsense is still denied its Dexterity bonus to Armor Class against attacks from creatures it cannot see.

Blindsight (Ex): This ability is similar to blindsense, but is far more discerning. Using nonvisual senses, such as sensitivity to vibrations, keen smell, acute hearing, or echolocation, a creature with blindsight maneuvers and fights as well as a sighted creature. Invisibility, darkness, and most kinds of concealment are irrelevant, though the creature must have line of effect to a creature or object to discern that creature or object. The ability's range is specified in the creature's descriptive text. The creature usually does not need to make Spot or Listen checks to notice creatures within range of its blindsight ability. Unless otherwise noted, blindsight is continuous, and the creature need do nothing to use it. Some forms of blindsight, however, must be triggered as a free action. If so, this is noted in the creature's description. If a creature must trigger its blindsight ability, the creature gains the benefits of blindsight only during its turn.

Breath Weapon (Su): A breath weapon attack usually deals damage and is often based on some type of energy (such as fire). Such breath weapons allow a Reflex save for half damage (DC 10 + 1/2 breathing creature's racial HD + breathing creature's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). A creature is immune to its own breath weapon unless otherwise noted. Some breath weapons allow a Fortitude save or a Will save instead of a Reflex save.

Change Shape (Su): A creature with this special quality has the ability to assume the appearance of a specific creature or type of creature (usually a humanoid), but retains most of its own physical qualities. A creature cannot change shape to a form more than one size category smaller or larger than its original form. Changing shape results in the following changes to the creature:

* The creature retains the type and subtype of its original form. It gains the size of its new form.

* The creature loses the natural weapons, movement modes, and extraordinary special attacks of its original form.

* The creature gains the natural weapons, movement modes, and extraordinary special attacks of its new form.

* The creature retains all other special attacks and qualities of its original form, except for breath weapons and gaze attacks.

* The creature retains the ability scores of its original form.

* The creature retains its hit points and saves.

* The creature retains any spellcasting ability it had in its original form, although it must be able to speak intelligibly to cast spells with verbal components and it must have humanlike hands to cast spells with somatic components.

* The creature is effectively camouflaged as a creature of its new form, and gains a +10 bonus on Disguise checks if it uses this ability to create a disguise.

Chaotic Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the chaotic-aligned Outer Planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have chaotic alignments; however, if their alignments change they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a chaotic alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the chaotic subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were chaotic-aligned (see Damage Reduction, below).

Class Skills: Any skill in which a monster has acquired at least one rank or in which the creature has a racial bonus is considered a class skill for that kind of creature. Some monsters, such as the true dragons, have their class skills explicitly listed. Other monsters' class skills can be determined from their statistics blocks.

Creatures with a Swim speed always have Swim as a class skill. Creatures with a Climb speed always have Climb as a class skill. Skills listed in an entry merely because of synergy with another skill are not class skills. For example, a ssvaklor's class skills are Bluff, Listen, Sense Motive, Spot, Survival and Swim. It has other skill modifiers, such as Diplomacy, Disguise and Intimidate, that are due to synergy benefits granted by other skills. The statistics block also includes a Jump modifier due to its speed, even though Jump is not a class skill for the creature.

Cold Subtype: A creature with the cold subtype has immunity to cold. It has vulnerability to fire, which means it takes half again as much (+50%) damage as normal from fire, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed, or if the save is a success or failure.

Constrict (Ex): A creature with this special attack can crush an opponent, dealing bludgeoning damage, after making a successful grapple check. The amount of damage is given in the creature's entry. If the creature also has the improved grab ability (see page 214), it deals constriction damage in addition to damage dealt by the weapon used to grab.

Construct Type: A construct is an animated object or artificially constructed creature.

Features: A construct has the following features.

* 10-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* No good saving throws.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die, if the construct has an Intelligence score. However, most constructs are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: A construct possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* No Constitution score.

* Low-light vision.

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Immunity to all mind-affecting spells and abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, stunning, disease, death effects, and necromancy effects.

* Cannot heal damage on their own, but often can be repaired by exposing them to a certain kind of effect (see the creature's description for details) or through the use of the Craft Construct feat (see page 206). A construct with the fast healing special quality still benefits from that quality.

* Not subject to critical hits, nonlethal damage, ability damage, ability drain, fatigue, exhaustion, or energy drain.

* Immunity to any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects, or is harmless).

* Not at risk of death from massive damage (see page 145 of the Player's Handbook). Immediately destroyed when reduced to 0 hit points or less.

* Since it was never alive, a construct cannot be raised or resurrected.

* Because its body is a mass of unliving matter, a construct is hard to destroy. It gains bonus hit points based on size, as shown on the following table.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with any weapon mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with no armor.

* Constructs do not eat, sleep, or breathe.

Damage Reduction (Ex or Su): A creature with this special quality ignores damage from most weapons and natural attacks. Wounds heal immediately, or the weapon bounces off harmlessly (in either case, the opponent knows the attack was ineffective). The creature takes normal damage from energy attacks (even nonmagical ones), spells, spell-like abilities, and supernatural abilities. A certain kind of weapon can sometimes damage the creature normally, as noted below.

The entry indicates the amount of damage ignored (usually 5 to 15 points) and the type of weapon that negates the ability. For example, the werewolf's entry reads "damage reduction 10/silver": Each time a foe hits a werewolf with a weapon, the damage dealt by that attack is reduced by 10 points (to a minimum of 0). However, a silvered weapon deals full damage.

Some monsters are vulnerable to piercing, bludgeoning, or slashing damage. For example, the plague spewer has damage reduction 10/slashing. When hit with bludgeoning or piercing weapons, the damage dealt by each attack is reduced by 5 points, but slashing weapons deal full damage.

Some monsters are vulnerable to certain materials, such as alchemical silver, adamantine, or cold-forged iron. Attacks from weapons that are not made of the correct material have their damage reduced, even if the weapon has an enhancement bonus. Examples: the war troll's damage reduction 5/adamantine, the young redcap's damage reduction 5/cold iron, and the splinterwaif's damage reduction 5/silver.

Some monsters are vulnerable to magic weapons. Any weapon with at least a +1 magical enhancement bonus on attack and damage rolls overcomes the damage reduction of these monsters. Such creatures' natural weapons (but not their attacks with weapons) are treated as magic weapons for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction. For example, the ssvaklor has damage reduction 10/magic and can strike as a magic weapon for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction.

Some monsters are vulnerable to chaotic-, evil-, good-, or lawful-aligned weapons. When a cleric casts align weapon, affected weapons might gain one or more of these properties, and certain magic weapons have these properties as well. For example, many tanar'ri demons and baatezu devils have damage reduction 10/good, while the prismatic golem has damage reduction 10/evil. A creature with an alignment subtype (chaotic, evil, good, or lawful) can overcome this type of damage reduction with its natural weapons and weapons it wields as if the weapons or natural weapons had an alignment (or alignments) that match the subtype(s) of the creature. An arrow demon, for instance, has the chaotic and evil subtypes, and thus can overcome damage reduction as if its weapons and natural weapons were chaotic-aligned and evil-aligned.

When a damage reduction entry has a dash (-) after the slash, no weapon overcomes the damage reduction.

A few creatures are harmed by more than one kind of weapon. The bonedrinker, for example, has damage reduction 5/silver or good. Either kind of weapon -- silver or good -- overcomes its damage reduction.

A few other creatures require combinations of different types of attacks to overcome their damage reduction. The sorrowsworn demon has damage reduction 10/cold iron and good, meaning that a weapon must be made of cold-forged iron and be good-aligned in order to overcome the demon's damage reduction. A shadesteel golem has damage reduction 10/adamantine and magic, meaning that only adamantine weapons with at least a +1 enhancement bonus deal full damage to it. A weapon that falls into one category but not the other is of no help in overcoming the creature's damage reduction -- a magic sword or a nonmagical mace is no better at harming a lich than any other weapon.

Darkvision (Ex): A creature with this special ability can see in the dark, out to the distance given in the creature's entry. Darkvision is black and white only, but it is otherwise like normal sight, and a creature with darkvision can function just fine with no light at all.

Dragon Type: A dragon is a reptilelike creature, usually winged, with magical or unusual abilities.

Features: A dragon has the following features.

* 12-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).

* Good Fortitude, Reflex, and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to (6 + Int modifier) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: A dragon possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in the description of a particular kind).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet and low-light vision.

* Immunity to magic sleep effects and paralysis effects.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only unless humanoid in form (or capable of assuming humanoid form), in which case proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with no armor.

* Dragons eat, sleep, and breathe.

Earth Subtype: This subtype usually is used for elementals and outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Earth. Earth creatures usually have burrow speeds, and most earth creatures can burrow through solid rock.

Effective Character Level (ECL): This number represents a creature's overall power relative to that of a character from the Player's Handbook. A creature with an ECL of 10 is roughly equivalent to a 10th-level character. A creature's ECL is the sum of its Hit Dice (including class levels) and level adjustment. For instance, a splinterwaif has 2 HD and a +4 level adjustment. It is the equivalent of a 6th-level character.

Elemental Type: An elemental is a being composed of one of the four classical elements: air, earth, fire, or water.

Features: An elemental has the following features.

* 8-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good saves depend on the element: Fortitude (earth, water) or Reflex (air, fire).

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: An elemental possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, and stunning.

* Not subject to critical hits or flanking.

* Unlike most other living creatures, an elemental does not have a dual nature -- its soul and body form one unit. When an elemental is slain, no soul is set loose. Spells that restore souls to their bodies, such as raise dead, reincarnate, and resurrection, don't work on an elemental. It takes a different magical effect, such as limited wish, wish, miracle, or true resurrection, to restore it to life.

* Proficient with natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) that it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Elementals not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Elementals are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Elementals do not eat, sleep, or breathe.

Energy Charge (Su): This ability bestows vital energy at a touch, and happens automatically when a melee or ranged attack hits. Each successful energy charge bestows one or more positive levels (the creature's description specifies how many) on living creatures. Unless otherwise specified in the creature's description, a draining creature loses 5 hit points for each positive level it bestows. A creature may not have more positive levels than its Constitution bonus (minimum 1).

An affected creature gains a +1 competence bonus on all skill checks and ability checks, attack rolls, and saving throws, and gains one effective level or Hit Die (whenever level is used in a die roll or calculation) for each positive level. A spellcaster gains one spell slot of the highest level of spells she can cast and (if applicable) one prepared spell of that level. These gains persist until the positive level goes away.

Positive levels remain for 24 hours or until removed with a spell, such as restoration. After 24 hours, the positive level automatically goes away.

Undead react to positive levels the way nonundead react to negative levels. An undead character with negative levels at least equal to its current level is instantly destroyed. After 24 hours, an undead must make a Will save (DC 10 + 1/2 attacker's HD + attacker's Cha modifier). (The DC is provided in the attacker's description.) If the saving throw succeeds, the positive level goes away with no harm to the creature. The afflicted creature makes a separate saving throw for each positive level it has gained. If the save fails, the positive level goes away, but the creature's level (or HD) is also reduced by one.

Energy Drain (Su): This attack saps a living opponent's vital energy and happens automatically when a melee or ranged attack hits. Each successful energy drain bestows one or more negative levels (the creature's description specifies how many). If an attack that includes an energy drain scores a critical hit, it drains twice the given amount. Unless otherwise specified in the creature's description, a draining creature gains 5 temporary hit points (10 on a critical hit) for each negative level it bestows on an opponent. These temporary hit points last for a maximum of 1 hour.

An affected opponent takes a -1 penalty on all skill checks and ability checks, attack rolls, and saving throws, and loses one effective level or Hit Die (whenever level is used in a die roll or calculation) for each negative level. A spellcaster loses one spell slot of the highest level of spells she can cast and (if applicable) one prepared spell of that level; this loss persists until the negative level is removed.

Negative levels remain until 24 hours have passed or until they are removed with a spell, such as restoration. If a negative level is not removed before 24 hours have passed, the affected creature must attempt a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 draining creature's racial HD + draining creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). On a success, the negative level goes away with no harm to the creature. On a failure, the negative level goes away, but the creature's level is also reduced by one. A separate saving throw is required for each negative level.

Environment: This entry in a statistics block describes the type of climate and terrain where the creature is typically found. This is a preference, but is not exclusionary. Note that these environments can also exist in portions of dungeons due to magical effects or other supernatural interference, or as features in dungeons or other environment areas.

Any: No preferred environment.

Cold: Arctic and subarctic climes. Any area that has winter-like conditions for the greater portion of the year.

Temperate: Any area that has alternating warm and cold seasons.

Warm: Tropical and subtropical climes. Any area that has summer conditions for the greater portion of the year is warm.

Aquatic: Fresh or salt water.

Deserts: Any dry area with sparse vegetation.

Forests: Any area covered with trees.

Hills: Any area with rugged but not mountainous terrain.

Marshes: Low, flat, waterlogged areas; including swamps.

Mountains: Rugged terrain, with a higher elevation than hills.

Plains: Any fairly flat area that is not a desert, marsh, or forest.

Plane Name: An extraplanar creature's home plane.

Underground: Subterranean areas.

Evil Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the evil-aligned Outer Planes. Evil outsiders are also called fiends. Most creatures that have this subtype also have evil alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has an evil alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the evil subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were evil-aligned (see Damage Reduction, above).

Extraordinary (Ex) Abilities: Extraordinary abilities are nonmagical, don't become ineffective in an antimagic field, and are not subject to any effect that disrupts magic. Using an extraordinary ability is a free action unless otherwise noted.

Extraplanar Subtype: A subtype applied to any creature when it is on a plane other than its native plane. A creature that travels the planes can gain or lose this subtype as it goes from plane to plane. This book assumes that encounters with creatures take place on the Material Plane, and every creature whose native plane is not the Material Plane has the extraplanar subtype (but would not have when on its home plane). Every extraplanar creature in this book has a home plane mentioned in its description. These home planes are taken from the Great Wheel cosmology of the D&D game (see Chapter 5 of the Dungeon Master's Guide). If your campaign uses a different cosmology, you will need to assign different home planes to extraplanar creatures.

Creatures not labeled as extraplanar are natives of the Material Plane, and they gain the extraplanar subtype if they leave the Material Plane. No creature has the extraplanar subtype when it is on a transitive plane; the transitive planes in the D&D cosmology are the Astral Plane, the Ethereal Plane, and the Plane of Shadow.

Fast Healing (Ex): A creature with the fast healing special quality regains hit points at an exceptionally fast rate, usually 1 or more hit points per round, as given in the creature's entry (for example, a cave troll has fast healing 8). Except where noted here, fast healing is just like natural healing (see page 146 of the Player's Handbook). Fast healing does not restore hit points lost from starvation, thirst, or suffocation, and it does not allow a creature to regrow lost body parts. Unless otherwise stated, it does not allow lost body parts to be reattached.

Favored Class: A monster that takes levels in a class (or more than one class) has a favored class, just as player characters do. In addition, a monster's racial Hit Dice also count as a favored class, in effect: If the monster becomes a multiclass character, neither its favored class nor its racial Hit Dice count when determining whether the creature takes an experience point penalty.

Fear (Su or Sp): Fear attacks can have various effects.

Fear Aura (Su): The use of this ability is a free action. The aura can freeze an opponent (such as a mummy's despair) or function like the fear spell (for example, the aura of a lich). Other effects are possible. A fear aura is an area effect. The descriptive text gives the size and kind of area.

Fear Cones (Sp) and Rays (Su): These effects usually work like the fear spell.

If a fear effect allows a saving throw, it is a Will save (DC 10 + 1/2 fearsome creature's racial HD + creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). All fear attacks are mind-affecting fear effects.

Fey Type: A fey is a creature with supernatural abilities and connections to nature or to some other force or place. Fey are usually human-shaped.

Features: A fey has the following features.

* 6-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 1/2 total Hit Dice (as wizard).

* Good Reflex and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to (6 + Int modifier) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: A fey possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Low-light vision.

* Proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) that it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Fey not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Fey are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Fey eat, sleep, and breathe.

Fire Subtype: A creature with the fire subtype has immunity to fire. It has vulnerability to cold, which means it takes half again as much (+50%) damage as normal from cold, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed, or if the save is a success or failure.

Frightful Presence (Ex): This special quality makes a creature's very presence unsettling to foes. It takes effect automatically when the creature performs some sort of dramatic action (such as charging, attacking, or snarling). Opponents within range who witness the action may become frightened or shaken.

Actions required to trigger the ability are given in the creature's descriptive text. The range is usually 30 feet, and the duration is usually 5d6 rounds.

This ability affects only opponents with fewer Hit Dice or levels than the creature has. An affected opponent can resist the effects with a successful Will save (DC 10 + 1/2 frightful creature's racial HD + frightful creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). An opponent that succeeds on the saving throw is immune to that same creature's frightful presence for 24 hours. Frightful presence is a mind-affecting fear effect.

Gaze (Su): A gaze special attack takes effect when opponents look at the creature's eyes. The attack can have almost any sort of effect: petrification, death, charm, and so on. The typical range is 30 feet, but check the creature's entry for details.

The type of saving throw for a gaze attack varies, but it is usually a Will or Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 gazing creature's racial HD + gazing creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). A successful saving throw negates the effect. A monster's gaze attack is described in abbreviated form in its description.

Each opponent within range of a gaze attack must attempt a saving throw each round at the beginning of his or her turn in the initiative order. Only looking directly at a creature with a gaze attack leaves an opponent vulnerable. Opponents can avoid the need to make the saving throw by not looking at the creature, in one of two ways.

Averting Eyes: The opponent avoids looking at the creature's face, instead looking at its body, watching its shadow, tracking it in a reflective surface, and so on. Each round, the opponent has a 50% chance to not need to make a saving throw against the gaze attack. The creature with the gaze attack, however, gains concealment against that opponent.

Wearing a Blindfold: The opponent cannot see the creature at all (also possible to achieve by turning one's back on the creature or shutting one's eyes). The creature with the gaze attack gains total concealment against the opponent.

A creature with a gaze attack can actively gaze as an attack action by choosing a target within range. That opponent must attempt a saving throw but can try to avoid this as described above. Thus, it is possible for an opponent to save against a creature's gaze twice during the same round, once before the opponent's action and once during the creature's turn.

Gaze attacks can affect ethereal opponents. A creature is immune to gaze attacks of others of its kind unless otherwise noted. Allies of a creature with a gaze attack might be affected. All the creature's allies are considered to be averting their eyes from the creature with the gaze attack, and have a 50% chance to not need to make a saving throw against the gaze attack each round. The creature also can veil its eyes, thus negating its gaze ability.

Giant Type: A giant is a humanoid-shaped creature of great strength, usually of at least Large size.

Features: A giant has the following features.

* 8-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good Fortitude saves.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: A giant possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Low-light vision.

* Proficient with all simple and martial weapons, as well as any natural weapons.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Giants not described as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Giants are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Giants eat, sleep, and breathe.

Goblinoid Subtype: Goblinoids are stealthy humanoids who live by hunting and raiding and who all speak Goblin.

Good Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the good-aligned Outer Planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have good alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a good alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the good subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were good-aligned (see Damage Reduction, above).

Humanoid Type: A humanoid usually has two arms, two legs, and one head, or a humanlike torso, arms, and a head. Humanoids have few or no supernatural or extraordinary abilities, but most can speak and usually have well-developed societies. They usually are Small or Medium. Every humanoid creature also has a subtype, such as elf, goblinoid, or reptilian.

Humanoids with 1 Hit Die exchange the features of their humanoid Hit Die for the class features of a PC or NPC class. Humanoids of this sort are presented as 1st-level warriors, which means that they have average combat ability and poor saving throws.

Humanoids with more than 1 Hit Die (for example, gnolls and bugbears) are the only humanoids who make use of the features of the humanoid type.

Features: A humanoid has the following features (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* 8-sided Hit Dice, or by character class.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good Reflex saves (usually; a humanoid's good save varies).

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die, or by character class.

Traits: A humanoid possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Proficient with all simple weapons, or by character class.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, or by character class. If a humanoid does not have a class and wears armor, it is proficient with that type of armor and all lighter types. Humanoids not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Humanoids are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Humanoids breathe, eat, and sleep.

Immunity: A creature that has immunity to an effect is never harmed (or helped) by that effect. A creature cannot suppress an immunity in order to receive a beneficial effect.

Improved Grab (Ex): If a creature with this special attack hits with a melee weapon (usually a claw or bite attack), it deals normal damage and attempts to start a grapple as a free action without provoking attacks of opportunity (see Grapple, page 155 of the Player's Handbook). No initial touch attack is required.

Unless otherwise noted, improved grab works only against opponents at least one size category smaller than the creature. The creature has the option to conduct the grapple normally, or simply use the part of its body it used in the improved grab to hold the opponent. If it chooses to do the latter, it takes a -20 penalty on grapple checks, but is not considered grappled itself; the creature does not lose its Dexterity bonus to AC, still threatens an area, and can use its remaining attacks against other opponents.

A successful hold does not deal any extra damage unless the creature also has the constrict special attack. If the creature does not constrict, each successful grapple check it makes during successive rounds automatically deals the damage indicated for the attack that established the hold. Otherwise, it deals constriction damage as well (the amount is given in the creature's descriptive text).

When a creature gets a hold after an improved grab attack, it pulls the opponent into its space. This act does not provoke attacks of opportunity. It can even move (possibly carrying away the opponent), provided it can drag the opponent's weight.

Incorporeal Subtype: Some creatures are incorporeal by nature, while others (such as those that become ghosts) can acquire the incorporeal subtype. An incorporeal creature has no physical body. It can be harmed only by other incorporeal creatures, magic weapons or creatures that strike as magic weapons, and spells, spell-like abilities, or supernatural abilities. It is immune to all nonmagical attack forms. Even when hit by spells, including touch spells, or magic weapons, it has a 50% chance to ignore any damage from a corporeal source (except for positive energy, negative energy, force effects such as magic missile, or attacks made with ghost touch weapons). Nondamaging spell effects affect incorporeal creatures normally unless they require corporeal targets to function (such as implosion) or they create a corporeal effect that incorporeal creatures would normally be unaffected by (such as a web or wall of stone spell). Although it is not a magical attack, holy water can affect incorporeal undead, but a hit with holy water has a 50% chance of not affecting an incorporeal creature.

An incorporeal creature's attacks pass through (ignore) natural armor, armor, and shields, although deflection bonuses and force effects (such as mage armor) work normally against it. Nonmagical attacks made by an incorporeal creature with a melee weapon have no effect on corporeal targets, and any melee attack an incorporeal creature makes with a magic weapon against a corporeal target has a 50% miss chance, except for attacks it makes with a ghost touch weapon, while are made normally (no miss chance).

Any equipment worn or carried by an incorporeal creature is also incorporeal as long as it remains in the creature's possession. An object that the creature relinquishes loses its incorporeal quality (and the creature loses the ability to manipulate the object). If an incorporeal creature uses a thrown weapon or a ranged weapon, the projectile becomes corporeal as soon as it is fired and can affect a corporeal target normally (no miss chance). Magic items possessed by an incorporeal creature work normally with respect to their effects on the creature or on another target. Similarly, spells cast by an incorporeal creature affect corporeal creatures normally.

An incorporeal creature has no natural armor bonus but has a deflection bonus equal to its Charisma bonus (always at least +1, even if the creature's Charisma score does not normally provide a bonus).

An incorporeal creature can enter or pass through solid objects, but must remain adjacent to the object's exterior, and so cannot pass entirely through an object whose space is larger than its own. It can sense the presence of creatures or objects within a square adjacent to its current location, but enemies have total concealment (50% miss chance) from an incorporeal creature that is inside an object. In order to see farther from the object it is in and attack normally, the incorporeal creature must emerge. An incorporeal creature inside an object has total cover, but when it attacks a creature outside the object it only has cover, so a creature outside with a readied action could strike at it as it attacks. An incorporeal creature cannot pass through a force effect.

Incorporeal creatures pass through and operate in water as easily as they do in air. Incorporeal creatures cannot fall or take falling damage. Incorporeal creatures cannot make trip or grapple attacks, nor can they be tripped or grappled. In fact, they cannot take any physical action that would move or manipulate an opponent or its equipment, nor are they subject to such actions. Incorporeal creatures have no weight and do not set off traps that are triggered by weight.

An incorporeal creature moves silently and cannot be heard with Listen checks if it doesn't wish to be. It has no Strength score, so its Dexterity modifier applies to both its melee attacks and its ranged attacks. Nonvisual senses, such as scent and blindsight, are either ineffective or only partly effective with regard to incorporeal creatures. Incorporeal creatures have an innate sense of direction and can move at full speed even when they cannot see.

Lawful: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the lawful-aligned Outer Planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have lawful alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a lawful alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the lawful subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were lawful-aligned (see Damage Reduction, above).

Level Adjustment: Certain monsters can be used as the basis for interesting, viable player characters. These creatures have a level adjustment entry, which is a number that is added to the creature's total Hit Dice to arrive at its effective character level. A creature with multiple special abilities is more powerful as a player character than its Hit Dice alone would indicate. For example, a drow elf has spell resistance, bonuses to its ability scores, and spell-like abilities. Its level adjustment of +2 indicates that a 1st-level drow wizard is the equivalent of a 3rd-level character.

Some creatures' level adjustment entries include the word "(cohort)." Although these creatures may be problematic as PCs, they make good companions for a character who has taken the Leadership feat. Some other creatures aren't intended for use as PCs or cohorts but can become companions through the use of the Improved Familiar feat. In these cases, the level adjustment entry is a dash followed by the words "(Improved Familiar)."

Level adjustment is not the same thing as an adjustment to a creature's Challenge Rating because of some special qualities it possesses. Challenge Rating reflects how difficult an opponent is to fight in a limited number of encounters. Level adjustment shows how powerful a creature is as a player character or cohort in campaign play. For instance, a drow receives a +1 adjustment to its Challenge Rating to account for its special abilities, indicating that it's tougher in a fight than its Hit Dice would suggest, but its level adjustment is +2 to balance its abilities over long-term play.

Living: Any creature with a Constitution score is a living creature. Constructs and undead are not living creatures.

Living Construct Subtype: A living construct is a new subtype of construct, a created being given sentience and free will through powerful and complex creation enchantments. Living constructs combine aspects of both constructs and living creatures, as detailed below.

Features: A living construct derives its Hit Dice, base attack bonus progression, saving throws, and skill points from the class it selects.

Traits: A living construct possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Unlike other constructs, a living construct has a Constitution score. A living construct does not gain bonus hit points by size but gains (or loses) bonus hit points through a Constitution bonus (or penalty) as with other living creatures.

* Unlike other constructs, a living construct does not have low-light vision or darkvision.

* Unlike other constructs, a living construct is not immune to mind-influencing effects.

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, disease, nausea, fatigue, exhaustion, and energy drain.

* A living construct cannot heal damage naturally.

* Unlike other constructs, living constructs are subject to critical hits, effects requiring a Fort save, death from massive damage, nonlethal damage, stunning, ability damage, ability drain, and death effects or necromancy effects.

* Unlike other constructs, a living construct can use the run action.

* Living constructs can be affected by spells that target living creatures as well as by those that target constructs. Damage dealt to a living construct can be healed by a cure light wounds spell or a repair light damage spell, for example, and a living construct is vulnerable to a harm spell. However, spells from the healing subschool provide only half effect to a living construct.

* A living construct responds slightly differently from other living creatures when reduced to 0 hit points. A living construct with 0 hit points is disabled, just like a living creature. He can only take a single move action or standard action in each round, but strenuous activity does not risk further injury. When his hit points are less than 0 and greater than -10, a living construct is inert. He is unconscious and helpless, and he cannot perform any actions. However, an inert living construct does not lose additional hit points unless more damage is dealt to him, as with a living creature that is stable.

* Can be raised or resurrected.

* Does not need to eat, sleep, or breathe, but can still benefit from the effects of consumable spells and magic items such as heroes' feast and potions.

* Does not need to sleep, but must rest for 8 hours before preparing spells.

Low-Light Vision (Ex): A creature with low-light vision can see twice as far as a human in starlight, moonlight, torchlight, and similar conditions of shadowy illumination. It retains the ability to distinguish color and detail under these conditions.

Magical Beast Type: Magical beasts are similar to animals but can have Intelligence scores higher than 2. Magical beasts usually have supernatural or extraordinary abilities, but sometimes are merely bizarre in appearance or habits.

Features: A magical beast has the following features.

* 10-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).

* Good Fortitude and Reflex saves.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: A magical beast possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet and low-light vision.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armor.

* Magical beasts eat, sleep, and breathe.

Manufactured Weapons: Some monsters employ manufactured weapons when they attack. Creatures that use swords, bows, spears, and the like follow the same rules as characters, including those for additional attacks from a high base attack bonus and two-weapon fighting penalties. This category also includes "found items," such as rocks and logs, that a creature wields in combat -- in essence, any weapon that is not intrinsic to the creature.

Some creatures combine attacks with natural and manufactured weapons when they make a full attack. When they do so, the manufactured weapon attack is considered the primary attack unless the creature's description indicates otherwise (using the manufactured weapon consumes most of the creature's attention), and any natural weapons the creature also uses are considered secondary natural attacks. These secondary attacks do not interfere with the primary attack as attacking with an off-hand weapon does, but they take the usual -5 penalty (or -2 with the Multiattack feat) for such attacks, even if the natural weapon used is normally the creature's primary natural weapon.

Monstrous Humanoid Type: Monstrous humanoids are similar to humanoids, but with monstrous or animalistic features. They often have magical abilities as well.

Features: A monstrous humanoid has the following features.

* 8-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).

* Good Reflex and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: A monstrous humanoid possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Monstrous humanoids not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Monstrous humanoids are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Monstrous humanoids eat, sleep, and breathe.

Movement Modes: Creatures may have modes of movement other than walking and running. These are natural, not magical, unless specifically noted in a monster description.

Burrow: A creature with a burrow speed can tunnel through dirt, but not through rock unless the descriptive text says otherwise. Creatures cannot charge or run while burrowing. Most burrowing creatures do not leave behind tunnels other creatures can use (either because the material they tunnel through fills in behind them or because they do not actually dislocate any material when burrowing); see the individual creature descriptions for details.

Climb: A creature with a climb speed has a +8 racial bonus on all Climb checks. The creature must make a Climb check to climb any wall or slope with a DC of more than 0, but it always can choose to take 10 (see Checks without Rolls, page 65 of the Player's Handbook), even if rushed or threatened while climbing. The creature climbs at the given speed while climbing. If it chooses an accelerated climb (see the Climb skill, page 69 of the Player's Handbook), it moves at double the given climb speed (or its base land speed, whichever is lower) and makes a single Climb check at a -5 penalty. Creatures cannot run while climbing. A creature retains its Dexterity bonus to Armor Class (if any) while climbing, and opponents get no special bonus on their attacks against a climbing creature.

Fly: A creature with a fly speed can move through the air at the indicated speed if carrying no more than a light load; see Carrying Capacity, page 161 of the Player's Handbook. (Note that medium armor does not necessarily constitute a medium load.) All fly speeds include a parenthetical note indicating maneuverability, as follows:

* Perfect: The creature can perform almost any aerial maneuver it wishes. It moves through the air as well as a human moves over smooth ground.

* Good: The creature is very agile in the air (like a housefly or a hummingbird), but cannot change direction as readily as those with perfect maneuverability.

* Average: The creature can fly as adroitly as a small bird.

* Poor: The creature flies as well as a very large bird.

* Clumsy: The creature can barely maneuver at all.

A creature that flies can make dive attacks. A dive attack works just like a charge, but the diving creature must move a minimum of 30 feet and descend at least 10 feet. It can make only claw or talon attacks, but these deal double damage. A creature can use the run action while flying, provided it flies in a straight line.

For more information, see Tactical Aerial Movement, page 20 of the Dungeon Master's Guide.

Swim: A creature with a swim speed can move through water at its swim speed without making Swim checks. It has a +8 racial bonus on any Swim check to perform some special action or avoid a hazard. The creature can always can choose to take 10 on a Swim check, even if distracted or endangered. The creature can use the run action while swimming, provided it swims in a straight line.

Native Subtype: A subtype applied only to outsiders. These creatures have mortal ancestors or a strong connection to the Material Plane and can be raised, reincarnated, or resurrected just as other living creatures can be. Creatures with this subtype are native to the Material Plane (hence the subtype's name).

Unlike true outsiders, native outsiders need to eat and sleep.

Natural Weapons: Natural weapons are weapons that are physically a part of a creature. A creature making a melee attack with a natural weapon is considered armed and does not provoke attacks of opportunity. Likewise, it threatens any space it can reach.

Creatures do not receive additional attacks from a high base attack bonus when using natural weapons. The number of attacks a creature can make with its natural weapons depends on the type of the attack -- generally, a creature can make one bite attack, one attack per claw or tentacle, one gore attack, one sting attack, or one slam attack (although Large creatures with arms or armlike limbs can make a slam attack with each arm). Refer to the individual monster descriptions.

Unless otherwise noted, a natural weapon threatens a critical hit on a natural attack roll of 20.

When a creature has more than one natural weapon, one of them (or sometimes a pair or set of them) is the primary weapon. All the creature's remaining natural weapons are secondary.

The primary weapon is given in the creature's Attack entry, and the primary weapon or weapons is given first in the creature's Full Attack entry. A creature's primary natural weapon is its most effective natural attack, usually by virtue of the creature's physiology, training, or innate talent with the weapon. An attack with a primary natural weapon uses the creature's full attack bonus. Attacks with secondary natural weapons are less effective and are made with a -5 penalty on the attack roll, no matter how many there are. (Creatures with the Multiattack feat take only a -2 penalty on secondary attacks.)

Natural weapons have types just as other weapons do. The most common are summarized below.

Bite: The creature attacks with its mouth, dealing piercing, slashing, and bludgeoning damage.

Claw or Talon: The creature rips with a sharp appendage, dealing piercing and slashing damage.

Gore: The creature spears the opponent with an antler, horn, or similar appendage, dealing piercing damage.

Slap or Slam: The creature batters opponents with an appendage, dealing bludgeoning damage.

Sting: The creature stabs with a stinger, dealing piercing damage. Sting attacks usually deal damage from poison in addition to hit point damage.

Tentacle: The creature flails at opponents with a powerful tentacle, dealing bludgeoning (and sometimes slashing) damage.

Nonabilities: Some creatures lack certain ability scores. These creatures do not have an ability score of 0 -- they lack the ability altogether. The modifier for a nonability is +0. Other effects of nonabilities are detailed below.

Strength: Any creature that can physically manipulate other objects has at least 1 point of Strength.

A creature with no Strength score can't exert force, usually because it has no physical body (a prismatic golem, for example). The creature automatically fails Strength checks. If the creature can attack, it applies its Dexterity modifier to its base attack bonus instead of a Strength modifier.

Dexterity: Any creature that can move has at least 1 point of Dexterity.

A creature with no Dexterity score can't move. If it can perform actions (such as casting spells), it applies its Intelligence modifier to initiative checks instead of a Dexterity modifier. The creature automatically fails Reflex saves and Dexterity checks.

Constitution: Any living creature has at least 1 point of Constitution.

A creature with no Constitution has no body (a vasuthant, for example) or no metabolism (a gloom golem). It is immune to any effect that requires a Fortitude save unless the effect works on objects or is harmless. For example, a zombie is unaffected by any type of poison but is susceptible to a disintegrate spell. The creature is also immune to ability damage, ability drain, and energy drain, and automatically fails Constitution checks. A creature with no Constitution cannot tire and thus can run indefinitely without tiring (unless the creature's description says it cannot run).

Intelligence: Any creature that can think, learn, or remember has at least 1 point of Intelligence.

A creature with no Intelligence score (such as a shredstorm) is mindless, an automaton operating on simple instincts or programmed instructions. It has immunity to mind-affecting spells and abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects) and automatically fails Intelligence checks.

Mindless creatures do not gain feats or skills, although they may have bonus feats or racial skill bonuses.

Wisdom: Any creature that can perceive its environment in any fashion has at least 1 point of Wisdom.

Anything with no Wisdom score is an object, not a creature. Anything without a Wisdom score also has no Charisma score.

Charisma: Any creature capable of telling the difference between itself and things that are not itself has at least 1 point of Charisma.

Anything with no Charisma score is an object, not a creature. Anything without a Charisma score also has no Wisdom score.

Ooze Type: An ooze is an amorphous or mutable creature, usually mindless.

Features: An ooze has the following features.

* 10-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* No good saving throws.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die, if the ooze has an Intelligence score. However, most oozes are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: An ooze possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Mindless: No Intelligence score, and immunity to all mind-affecting spells and abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).

* Blind (but have the blindsight special quality), with immunity to gaze attacks, visual effects, illusions, and other attack forms that rely on sight.

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, polymorph, and stunning.

* Some oozes have the ability to deal acid damage to objects. In such a case, the amount of damage is equal to 10 + 1/2 ooze's HD + ooze's Con modifier per full round of contact.

* Not subject to critical hits or flanking.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armor.

* Oozes eat and breathe, but do not sleep.

Outsider Type: An outsider is at least partially composed of the essence (but not necessarily the material) of some plane other than the Material Plane. Some creatures start out as some other type and become outsiders when they attain a higher (or lower) state of spiritual existence.

Features: An outsider has the following features.

* 8-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).

* Good Fortitude, Reflex, and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to (8 + Int modifier) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die.

Traits: An outsider possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Unlike most other living creatures, an outsider does not have a dual nature -- its soul and body form one unit. When an outsider is slain, no soul is set loose. Spells that restore souls to their bodies, such as raise dead, reincarnate, and resurrection, don't work on an outsider. It takes a different magical effect, such as limited wish, wish, miracle, or true resurrection to restore it to life. An outsider with the native subtype (see page 217) can be raised, reincarnated, or resurrected just as other living creatures can be.

* Proficient with all simple and martial weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Outsiders not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Outsiders are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Outsiders breathe, but do not need to eat or sleep (although they can do so if they wish). Native outsiders breathe, eat, and sleep.

Paralysis (Ex or Su): This special attack renders the victim immobile. Paralyzed creatures cannot move, speak, or take any physical actions. The creature is rooted to the spot, frozen and helpless. Paralysis works on the body, and a character can usually resist it with a Fortitude saving throw (the DC is given in the creature's description). Unlike hold person and similar effects, a paralysis effect does not allow a new save each round. A winged creature flying in the air at the time that it is paralyzed cannot flap its wings and falls. A swimmer can't swim and may drown.

Plant Type: This type comprises vegetable creatures. Note that regular plants, such as one finds growing in gardens and fields, lack Wisdom and Charisma scores (see Nonabilities, above) and are not creatures, but objects, even though they are alive.

Features: A plant creature has the following features.

* 8-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good Fortitude saves.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die, if the plant creature has an Intelligence score. However, some plant creatures are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: A plant creature possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Low-light vision.

* Immunity to all mind-affecting spells or abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, polymorph, and stunning.

* Not subject to critical hits.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armor.

* Plants breathe and eat, but do not sleep.

Poison (Ex): Poison attacks deal initial damage, such as ability damage (see page 208) or some other effect, to the opponent on a failed Fortitude save. Unless otherwise noted, another saving throw is required 1 minute later (regardless of the first save's result) to avoid secondary damage. A creature's descriptive text provides the details.

A creature with a poison attack is immune to its own poison and the poison of others of its kind.

The Fortitude save DC against a poison attack is equal to 10 + 1/2 poisoning creature's racial HD + poisoning creature's Con modifier (the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). A successful save avoids (negates) the damage.

Pounce (Ex): When a creature with this special attack makes a charge, it can follow with a full attack -- including rake attacks if the creature also has the rake ability.

Psionics (Sp): These are spell-like abilities that a creature generates with the power of its mind. The saving throw (if any) against a psionic ability is 10 + the level of the spell the ability resembles or duplicates + the creature's Cha modifier.

Racial Hit Dice: The Hit Dice a monster has by virtue of what type of creature it is. Hit Dice gained from taking class levels are not racial Hit Dice. For example, the armand warden described in this book is a 9 HD creature because of its four levels of monk, but it has 5 racial Hit Dice (the same number as a typical armand without any class levels).

Rake (Ex): A creature with this special attack gains extra natural attacks when it grapples its foe. Normally, a monster can attack with only one of its natural weapons while grappling, but a monster with the rake ability usually gains two additional claw attacks that it can use only against a grappled foe. Rake attacks are not subject to the usual -4 penalty for attacking with a natural weapon in a grapple.

A monster with the rake ability must begin its turn grappling to use its rake -- it can't begin a grapple and rake in the same turn.

Ray (Su or Sp): This form of special attack works like a ranged attack (see Aiming a Spell, page 175 of the Player's Handbook). Hitting with a ray attack requires a successful ranged touch attack roll, ignoring armor, natural armor, and shield and using the creature's ranged attack bonus. Ray attacks have no range increment. The creature's descriptive text specifies the maximum range, effects, and any applicable saving throw.

Regeneration (Ex): A creature with this ability is difficult to kill. Damage dealt to the creature is treated as nonlethal damage. The creature automatically heals non-lethal damage at a fixed rate per round, as given in the entry (for example, a dread blossom swarm has regeneration 5). Certain attack forms, typically fire and acid, deal lethal damage to the creature, which doesn't go away. The creature's descriptive text describes the details.

A regenerating creature that has been rendered unconscious through nonlethal damage can be killed with a coup de grace (see page 153 of the Player's Handbook). The attack cannot be of a type that automatically converts to nonlethal damage.

Attack forms that don't deal hit point damage (for example, most poisons) ignore regeneration. Regeneration also does not restore hit points lost from starvation, thirst, or suffocation.

Regenerating creatures can regrow lost portions of their bodies and can reattach severed limbs or body parts; details are in the creature's descriptive text. Severed parts that are not reattached wither and die normally.

A creature must have a Constitution score to have the regeneration ability.

Rend (Ex): If a creature with this special attack hits with the specified natural attack, it latches onto the opponent's body and tears the flesh. A rend attack deals damage equal to the creature's natural attack + 1.5 times its Str modifier. The creature's descriptive text gives the exact amount.

Reptilian Subtype: These creatures are scaly and usually cold-blooded. The reptilian subtype is only used to describe a set of humanoid races, not all animals and monsters that are truly reptiles.

Resistance to Energy (Ex): A creature with this special quality ignores some damage of the indicated type each time it takes damage of that kind (commonly acid, cold, fire, or electricity). The entry indicates the amount and type of damage ignored. For example, a witchknife has resistance to fire 5, so it ignores the first 5 points of fire damage dealt to it anytime it takes fire damage.

Scent (Ex): This special quality allows a creature to detect approaching enemies, sniff out hidden foes, and track by sense of smell. Creatures with the scent ability can identify familiar odors just as humans do familiar sights.

The creature can detect opponents within 30 feet by sense of smell. If the opponent is upwind, the range increases to 60 feet; if downwind, it drops to 15 feet. Strong scents, such as smoke or rotting garbage, can be detected at twice the ranges noted above. Overpowering scents, such as skunk musk or troglodyte stench, can be detected at triple normal range.

When a creature detects a scent, the exact location of the source is not revealed -- only its presence somewhere within range. The creature can take a move action to note the direction of the scent. Whenever the creature comes within 5 feet of the source, the creature pinpoints the source's location.

A creature with the Track feat and the scent ability can follow tracks by smell, making a Wisdom (or Survival) check to find or follow a track. The typical DC for a fresh trail is 10 (no matter what kind of surface holds the scent). This DC increases or decreases depending on how strong the quarry's odor is, the number of creatures, and the age of the trail. For each hour that the trail is cold, the DC increases by 2. The ability otherwise follows the rules for the Track feat. Creatures tracking by scent ignore the effects of surface conditions and poor visibility.

Shapechanger Subtype: A shapechanger has the super-natural ability to assume one or more alternate forms. Many magical effects allow some kind of shape shifting, and not every creature that can change shapes has the shapechanger subtype.

Traits: A shapechanger possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Proficient with its natural weapons, with simple weapons, and with any weapons mentioned in the creature's description.

* Proficient with any armor mentioned in the creature's description, as well as all lighter forms. If no form of armor is mentioned, the shapechanger is not proficient with armor. A shapechanger is proficient with shields if it is proficient with any type of armor.

Size: The nine size categories are (in ascending order) Fine, Diminutive, Tiny, Small, Medium, Large, Huge, Gargantuan, and Colossal. A creature's size provides a modifier to its Armor Class and attack bonus, a modifier on grapple checks it attempts, and a modifier on Hide checks. The Creature Sizes table on the following page provides a summary of the attributes that apply to each size category.

Creature Sizes

Size
Category
AC/Attack Modifier Grapple
Modifier
Hide
Modifier
Dimension* Weight** Space
(in squares)
Reach (Tall)
(in squares)
Reach (Long)
(in squares)
Fine 8 -16 16 6 in. or less 1/8 lb. or less 1/2 ft. (1/100) 0 ft. (0) --
Diminutive 4 -12 12 6 in.-1 ft. 1/8 lb. - 1 lb. 1 ft. (1/25) 0 ft. (0) --
Tiny 2 -8 8 1 ft.-2 ft. 1-8 lb. 2-1/2 ft. (1/4) 0 ft. (0) --
Small 1 -4 4 2 ft.-4 ft. 8-60 lb. 5 ft. (1) 5 ft. (1) --
Medium 0 0 0 4 ft.-8 ft. 60-500 lb. 5 ft. (1) 5 ft. (1) 5 ft. (1)
Large -1 4 -4 8 ft.-16 ft. 500-4,000 lb. 10 ft. (2 x 2) 10 ft. (2) 5 ft. (1)
Huge -2 8 -8 16 ft.-32 ft. 2-16 tons 15 ft. (3 x 3) 15 ft. (3) 10 ft. (2)
Gargantuan -4 12 -12 32 ft.-64 ft. 16-125 tons 20 ft. (4 x 4) 20 ft. (4) 15 ft. (3)
Colossal -8 16 -16 64 ft. or more 125 tons or more 30 ft.+ (6 x 6+) 30 ft.+ (6+) 20 ft.+ (4+)

* Biped's height, quadruped's body length (nose to base of tail).

** Assumes that the creature is roughly as dense as a regular animal. A creature made of stone will weigh considerably more. A gaseous creature will weigh much less.

Sonic Attacks (Su): Unless otherwise noted, a sonic attack follows the rules for spreads (see Aiming a Spell, page 175 of the Player's Handbook). The range of the spread is measured from the creature using the sonic attack. Once a sonic attack has taken effect, deafening the subject or stopping its ears does not end the effect. Stopping one's ears ahead of time allows opponents to avoid having to make saving throws against mind-affecting sonic attacks, but not other kinds of sonic attacks (such as those that deal damage). Stopping one's ears is a full-round action and requires wax or other soundproof material to stuff into the ears.

Spell-Like (Sp) Abilities: Spell-like abilities are magical and work just like spells (though they are not spells and so have no verbal, somatic, material, focus, or XP components). They go away in an antimagic field and are subject to spell resistance if the spell the ability resembles or duplicates would be subject to spell resistance.

A spell-like ability usually has a limit on how often it can be used. A spell-like ability that can be used at will has no use limit. Using a spell-like ability is a standard action unless otherwise noted, and doing so while threatened provokes attacks of opportunity. It is possible to make a Concentration check to use a spell-like ability defensively and avoid provoking attacks of opportunity, just as when casting a spell. A spell-like ability can be disrupted just as a spell can be. Spell-like abilities cannot be used to counterspell, nor can they be counterspelled.

For creatures with spell-like abilities, a designated caster level defines how difficult it is to dispel their spell-like effects and to define any level-dependent variables (such as range and duration) the abilities might have. The creature's caster level never affects which spell-like abilities the creature has; sometimes the given caster level is lower than the level a spellcasting character would need to cast the spell of the same name. If no caster level is specified, the caster level is equal to the creature's racial Hit Dice.

The saving throw (if any) against a spell-like ability is 10 + the level of the spell the ability resembles or duplicates + the creature's Cha modifier.

Some spell-like abilities duplicate spells that may work differently or be of a different level when cast by characters of different classes. A monster's spell-like abilities are presumed to be the sorcerer/wizard versions. If the spell in question is not a sorcerer/wizard spell, then default to cleric, druid, bard, paladin, and ranger, in that order.

Spell Resistance (Ex): A creature with spell resistance can avoid the effects of spells and spell-like abilities that directly affect it. To determine if a spell or spell-like ability works against a creature with spell resistance, the caster must make a caster level check (1d20 + caster level). If the result equals or exceeds the creature's spell resistance, the spell works normally, although the creature is still allowed a saving throw.

Spells: Sometimes a creature can cast arcane or divine spells just as a member of a spellcasting class can (and can activate magic items accordingly). Such creatures are subject to the same spellcasting rules that characters are, except as follows.

A spellcasting creature that lacks hands or arms can provide any somatic component a spell might require by moving its body. Such a creature also does need material components for its spells. The creature can cast the spell by either touching the required component (but not if the component is in another creature's possession) or having the required component on its person. Sometimes spellcasting creatures utilize the Eschew Materials feat to avoid fussing with noncostly components.

A spellcasting creature is not actually a member of a class unless its entry says so, and it does not gain any class abilities. For example, a creature that casts arcane spells as a sorcerer cannot acquire a familiar. A creature with access to cleric spells must prepare them in the normal manner and receives domain spells if noted, but it does not receive domain granted powers unless it has at least one level in the cleric class.

Summon (Sp): A creature with the summon ability can summon specific other creatures of its kind much as though casting a summon monster spell, but it usually has only a limited chance of success (as specified in the creature's entry). Roll d%: On a failure, no creature answers the summons. Summoned creatures automatically return whence they came after 1 hour. A creature that has just been summoned cannot use its own summon ability for 1 hour.

Most creatures with the ability to summon do not use it lightly, since it leaves them beholden to the summoned creature. In general, they use it only when necessary to save their own lives.

An appropriate spell level is given for each summoning ability for purposes of Concentration checks and attempts to dispel the summoned creature. As stated on page 37 of the Dungeon Master's Guide, no experience points are awarded for summoned monsters.

Supernatural (Su) Abilities: Supernatural abilities are magical and go away in an antimagic field but are not subject to spell resistance. Supernatural abilities cannot be dispelled. Using a supernatural ability is a standard action unless otherwise noted. Supernatural abilities may have a use limit or be usable at will, just like spell-like abilities. However, supernatural abilities do not provoke attacks of opportunity and never require Concentration checks. Unless otherwise noted, a supernatural ability has an effective caster level equal to the creature's Hit Dice.

The saving throw (if any) against a supernatural ability is 10 + 1/2 the creature's HD + the creature's ability modifier (usually Charisma).

Swallow Whole (Ex): If a creature with this special attack begins its turn with an opponent held in its mouth (see Improved Grab, page 214), it can attempt a new grapple check (as though attempting to pin the opponent). If it succeeds, it swallows its prey, and the opponent takes bite damage. Unless otherwise noted, the opponent can be up to one size category smaller than the swallowing creature.

Being swallowed has various consequences, depending on the creature doing the swallowing. A swallowed creature is considered to be grappled, while the creature that did the swallowing is not. A swallowed creature can try to cut its way free with any light slashing or piercing weapon (the amount of cutting damage required to get free is noted in the creature description), or it can just try to escape the grapple. The Armor Class of the interior of a creature that swallows whole is normally 10 + 1/2 its natural armor bonus, with no modifiers for size or Dexterity. If the swallowed creature escapes the grapple, success puts it back in the attacker's mouth, where it may be bitten or swallowed again.

Swarm Subtype: A swarm is a collection of Fine, Diminutive, or Tiny creatures that acts as a single creature. A swarm has the characteristics of its type, except as noted here. A swarm has a single pool of Hit Dice and hit points, a single initiative modifier, a single speed, and a single Armor Class. A swarm makes saving throws as a single creature.

A single swarm occupies a square (if it is made up of nonflying creatures) or a cube (of flying creatures) 10 feet on a side, but its reach is 0 feet, like its component creatures. In order to attack, it moves into an opponent's space, which provokes attacks of opportunity. It can occupy the same space as a creature of any size, since it crawls all over its prey. A swarm can move through squares occupied by enemies and vice versa without impediment, although the swarm provokes attacks of opportunity if it does so. A swarm can move through cracks or holes large enough for its component creatures.

A swarm of Tiny creatures consists of 300 nonflying creatures or 1,000 flying creatures. A swarm of Diminutive creatures consists of 1,500 nonflying creatures or 5,000 flying creatures. A swarm of Fine creatures consists of 10,000 creatures, whether they are flying or not. Swarms of nonflying creatures include many more creatures than could normally fit in a 10-foot square based on their normal space, because creatures in a swarm are packed tightly together and generally crawl over each other and their prey when moving or attacking. Larger swarms are represented by multiples of single swarms. (A swarm of 15,000 centipedes is ten centipede swarms, each swarm occupying a 10-foot square.) The area occupied by a large swarm is completely shapeable, though the swarm usually remains in contiguous squares.

Traits: A swarm has no clear front or back and no discernible anatomy, so it is not subject to critical hits or flanking. A swarm made up of Tiny creatures takes half damage from slashing and piercing weapons. A swarm composed of Fine or Diminutive creatures is immune to all weapon damage.

Reducing a swarm to 0 hit points or lower causes it to break up, though damage taken until that point does not degrade its ability to attack or resist attack. Swarms are never staggered or reduced to a dying state by damage. Also, they cannot be tripped, grappled, or bull rushed, and they cannot grapple an opponent.

A swarm is immune to any spell or effect that targets a specific number of creatures (including single-target spells such as disintegrate), with the exception of mind-affecting spells and abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects) if the swarm has an Intelligence score and a hive mind. A swarm takes half again as much damage (+50%) from spells or effects that affect an area, such as splash weapons and many evocation spells.

Swarms made up of Diminutive or Fine creatures are susceptible to high winds such as that created by a gust of wind spell. For purposes of determining the effects of wind on a swarm, treat the swarm as a creature of the same size as its constituent creatures (see Winds, page 95 of the Dungeon Master's Guide). For example, a swarm of locusts (a swarm of Diminutive creatures) can be blown away by a severe wind. Wind effects deal 1d6 points of nonlethal damage to a swarm per spell level (or Hit Dice of the originating creature, in the case of effects such as an air elemental's whirlwind). A swarm rendered unconscious by means of nonlethal damage becomes disorganized and dispersed, and does not re-form until its hit points exceed its nonlethal damage.

Swarm Attack: Creatures with the swarm subtype don't make standard melee attacks. Instead, they deal automatic damage to any creature whose space they occupy at the end of their move, with no attack roll needed. Swarm attacks are not subject to a miss chance for concealment or cover. A swarm's statistics block has "swarm" in the Attack and Full Attack entries, with no attack bonus given. The amount of damage a swarm deals is based on its Hit Dice, as shown below.

Swarm HD Swarm Base Damage
1-5 1d6
6-10 2d6
11-15 3d6
16-20 4d6
21 or more 5d6

A swarm's attacks are nonmagical, unless the swarm's description states otherwise. Damage reduction sufficient to reduce a swarm attack's damage to 0, being incorporeal, and other special abilities usually give a creature immunity (or at least resistance) to damage from a swarm. Some swarms also have acid, poison, blood drain, or other special attacks in addition to normal damage.

Swarms do not threaten creatures in their square, and do not make attacks of opportunity with their swarm attack. However, they distract foes whose squares they occupy, as described below.

Distraction (Ex): Any living creature vulnerable to a swarm's damage that begins its turn with a swarm in its square is nauseated for 1 round; a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 swarm's HD + swarm's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in a swarm's description) negates the effect. Spellcasting or concentrating on spells within the area of a swarm requires a Concentration check (DC 20 + spell level). Using skills that involve patience and concentration requires a DC 20 Concentration check.

Tanar'ri Subtype: Many demons belong to the race of evil outsiders known as the tanar'ri.

Traits: A tanar'ri possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Immunity to electricity and poison.

* Resistance to acid 10, cold 10, and fire 10.

* Summon (Sp): Tanar'ri share the ability to summon others of their kind (the success chance and type of tanar'ri summoned are noted in each monster description).

* Telepathy.

Telepathic Link (Ex): Creatures with this ability share a communal consciousness, enabling them to communicate telepathically with other creatures of their kind. A group of such creatures within a certain distance of each other (specified in the creature's entry) are in constant contact. If one is aware of a particular danger, they all are. If one in the group is not flat-footed, none of them are. No creature in the group is considered flanked unless all are.

Telepathy (Su): A creature with this ability can communicate telepathically with any other creature within a certain range (specified in the creature's entry, usually 100 feet) that has a language. It is possible to address multiple creatures at once telepathically, although maintaining a telepathic conversation with more than one creature at a time is just as difficult as simultaneously speaking and listening to multiple people at the same time.

Trample (Ex): As a full-round action, a creature with this special attack can move up to twice its speed and literally run over any opponents at least one size category smaller than itself. The creature merely has to move over the opponents in its path; any creature whose space is completely covered by the trampling creature's space is subject to the trample attack.

If a target's space is larger than 5 feet, it is only considered trampled if the trampling creature moves over all the squares it occupies. If the trampling creature moves over only some of a target's space, the target can make an attack of opportunity against the trampling creature at a -4 penalty. A trampling creature that accidentally ends its movement in an illegal space returns to the last legal position it occupied, or the closest legal position, if there's a legal position that's closer.

A trample attack deals bludgeoning damage (the creature's slam damage + 1-1/2 times its Str modifier). The creature's descriptive text gives the exact amount.

Trampled opponents can attempt attacks of opportunity, but these take a -4 penalty. If they do not make attacks of opportunity, trampled opponents can attempt Reflex saves to take half damage. The save DC against a creature's trample attack is 10 + 1/2 creature's HD + creature's Str modifier (the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). A trampling creature can only deal trampling damage to each target once per round, no matter how many times its movement takes it over a target creature.

Tremorsense (Ex): A creature with tremorsense is sensitive to vibrations in the ground and can automatically pinpoint the location of anything that is in contact with the ground. Aquatic creatures with tremorsense can also sense the location of creatures moving through water. The ability's range is specified in the creature's descriptive text.

Treasure: This entry in a monster description describes how much wealth a creature owns. (See pages 52-56 of the Dungeon Master's Guide for details about treasure, particularly Tables 3-5 through 3-8.) In most cases, a creature keeps valuables in its home or lair and has no treasure with it when it travels. Intelligent creatures that own useful, portable treasure (such as magic items) tend to carry and use these, leaving bulky items at home.

Treasure can include coins, goods, and items. Creatures can have varying amounts of each, as follows.

Standard: Refer to Table 3-5 in the Dungeon Master's Guide and roll d% once for each type of treasure (Coins, Goods, Items) on the Level section of the table that corresponds to the creature's Challenge Rating (for groups of creatures, use the Encounter Level for the encounter instead).

Some creatures have double, triple, or even quadruple standard treasure; in these cases, roll for each type of treasure two, three, or four times.

None: The creature collects no treasure of its own.

Nonstandard: Some creatures have quirks or habits that affect the types of treasure they collect. These creatures use the same treasure tables, but with special adjustments.

Fractional Coins: Roll on the Coins column in the section corresponding to the creature's Challenge Rating, but divide the result as indicated.

% Goods or Items: The creature has goods or items only some of the time. Before checking for goods or items, roll d% against the given percentage. On a success, make a normal roll on the appropriate Goods or Items column (which may still result in no goods or items).

Double Goods or Items: Roll twice on the appropriate Goods or Items column.

Parenthetical Notes: Some entries for goods or items include notes that limit the types of treasure a creature collects.

When a note includes the word "no," it means the creature does not collect or cannot keep that thing. If a random roll generates such a result, treat the result as "none" instead. For example, if a creature's "items" entry reads "no flammables," and a random roll generates a scroll, the creature instead has no item at all (the scroll burned up, or the creature left it behind).

When a note includes the word "only," the creature goes out of its way to collect treasure of the indicated type. If an entry for goods indicates "gems only," roll on the appropriate Goods column and treat any "art" result as "gems" instead.

It's sometimes necessary to reroll until the right sort of item appears. For example, if a creature's items entry reads "nonflammables only," roll normally on the appropriate Items column. If you get a flammable item, reroll on the same portion of the table until you get a nonflammable one. If the table you rolled on contains only flammable items, back up a step and reroll until you get to a table that can give you an appropriate item.

Turn Resistance (Ex): A creature with this special quality (usually an undead) is less easily affected by clerics or paladins (see Turn or Rebuke Undead, page 159 of the Player's Handbook). When resolving a turn, rebuke, command, or bolster attempt, add the indicated number to the creature's Hit Dice total. For example, a deathshrieker has 18 Hit Dice and +4 turn resistance. Attempts to turn, rebuke, command, or bolster treat a deathshrieker as though it had 22 Hit Dice, though it is an 18 HD creature for any other purpose.

Undead Type: Undead are once-living creatures animated by spiritual or supernatural forces.

Features: An undead creature has the following features.

* 12-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 1/2 total Hit Dice (as wizard).

* Good Will saves.

* Skill points equal to (4 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die, if the undead creature has an Intelligence score. However, many undead are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: An undead creature possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* No Constitution score.

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Immunity to all mind-affecting spells and abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, stunning, disease, and death effects.

* Not subject to critical hits, nonlethal damage, ability drain, or energy drain. Immune to damage to its physical ability scores (Strength, Dexterity, and Constitution), as well as to fatigue and exhaustion effects.

* Cannot heal damage on its own if it has no Intelligence score, although it can be healed. Negative energy (such as an inflict spell) can heal undead creatures. The fast healing special quality works regardless of the creature's Intelligence score.

* Immunity to any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects or is harmless).

* Uses its Charisma modifier for Concentration checks.

* Not at risk of death from massive damage, but when reduced to 0 hit points or less, it is immediately destroyed.

* Not affected by raise dead and reincarnate spells or abilities. Resurrection and true resurrection can affect undead creatures. These spells turn undead creatures back into the living creatures they were before becoming undead.

* Proficient with its natural weapons, all simple weapons, and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Undead not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Undead are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.

* Undead do not breathe, eat, or sleep.

Vermin Type: This type includes insects, arachnids, other arthropods, worms, and similar invertebrates.

Features: Vermin have the following features.

* 8-sided Hit Dice.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).

* Good Fortitude saves.

* Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, with quadruple skill points for the first Hit Die, if the vermin has an Intelligence score. However, most vermin are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: Vermin possess the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Mindless: No Intelligence score, and immunity to all mind-affecting spells and abilities (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).

* Darkvision out to 60 feet.

* Proficient with their natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armor.

* Vermin breathe, eat, and sleep.

Vulnerability to Energy: Some creatures have vulnerability to a certain kind of energy effect (typically either cold or fire). Such a creature takes half again as much (+50%) damage as normal from the effect, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed, or if the save is a success or failure.

Water Subtype: This subtype usually is used for elementals and outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Water. Creatures with the water subtype always have swim speeds and can move in water without making Swim checks. A water creature can breathe underwater and usually can breathe air as well.

Yugoloth Subtype: Possibly the greediest, most selfish beings in the Outer Planes, yugoloths reign supreme among the evil outsiders of Gehenna.

Traits: A yugoloth possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Immunity to acid and poison.

* Resistance to cold 10, electricity 10, and fire 10.

* Telepathy.

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